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Genetic trait with distinct phenotypes
What is nonrandom mating a deviation from?
What are reasons for non-random mating?
What are the types of deviatons due to phenotypic resemblances?
Positive assortment - tendency for like individuals to mate (ie
: similiar heights)
Negative assortment - tendency for unlike individuals to mate (ie
: dissimiliar heights)
What genes does non-random mating due to phenotypic resemblence affect?
Only genes that encode these traits
What are the types of deviations due to genetic relatedness?
: - preferential mating between related individuals
: avoidance of mating with related individuals
What Are types of Assortment?
What are the effects of assortive mating?
: Positive assortment and inbreeding increase homozygosity
: Negative assortment and outbreeding increase heterozygosity
3:Genotype frequencies change, but Allele frequencies do not
What are the two causes of inbreeding?
An individual whose parents are related
Two alleles that are identical by descent
Two alleles that are not identical by descent
What is the inbreeding coefficient?
(F): the probability that an individuals alleles are autozygous
What are the 5 effects of inbreeding on an individual?
Increases homozygosity across genes
Expression of recessive alleles
(taboos and organisms that routinely inbreed)
Inbreeding 2 effects at a pop level
Increased homozygosity relative to HW equilibrium
Genotype frequencies change without changing allele frequencies
random change in the genetic material
What are the 2 types of mutation?
Gene (point) mutation
: produce new alleles
: produce new chromosomal arrangments
What is mutations importance in evolution?
It is not significant on a generation-to-generation time scale
It is the source of all novel genetic variation
"Mu" and "v" are directly proportional to _________.
Forward and backward mutational frequencies.
What are the 3 types of mutational equilibrium?
Migration vs Gene Flow
Same freaking thing
The non-random movement of alleles into or out of a population
What are the effects of migration?
Bring new alleles to the population -> bring new variation to gene pool
3 types of populations considered by migration are ________ and thier frequencies are__________.
: with frequencies PnQn
: m+(1-m) (m= migration rate)
What are the two effects of migration?
Conglomerate becomes native and a new migration event occurs
Conglomerate/Native frequencies asymptotically approach those of the migrant population -> Qm=Qn
What is the "island model" for migration?
Migration is 2 way
There are many populations
All populations can evolve
What are the 4 assumptions of the Island Model?
All populations are on discrete "islands"
All populations are equal in terms of size, migration rate, etc... (migration rate should remain constant)
...but p and q do not have to be the same in each pop at the start
The number of populations is very large (infinite)
Island distances are not a factor
Gene flow alters frequencies ____?____ populations.
Gene flow ___?___ genetic differences __?__ populations and is known as the "__?__."
Gene flow __?__ speciation which __?__.
Requires Genetic Divergence
What eliminates the homogenizing effect of gene flow?
"Real" populations subject to genetic drift becuase _____.
real pop are:
finite and can be very small
Define: Genetic Drift
Random sampling error
of gametes resulting in fluctuations in allelic frequencies from one generation to the next.
__?__ is another name for genetic drift.
Sewell Wright effect
Random sampling error is a result of __?__.
s that are
__?__ is a measure of random sampling error and gets __?__ as k gets __?__.
Genetic drift is __?__ so direction and magnitude cannot be __?__.
The long term effect of genetic drift is __?__
loss of one allele
other becomes fixed
__?/?__ is a function of population site.
genetic drift causes variation among populations to __?__
The two special cases of genetic drift are __?__ and __?__.
The Bottleneck Effect is __?__.
when populations undergo a drastic reduction in population size (N)
The bottleneck effect results in __?__ and __?__.
change in allele frequency
loss of genetic variation
How is variation lost from bottleneck restored?
Genetic flow/Migration or Mutation (very slow)
The Founder Effect is __?__
when a new population is established from a small number of "founders"
The founder effect results in __?__ and __?__.
different allele frequencies in founder populations
low variation in founder population
Genetics test questions