sgu Clinical allied anatomy-thorax (70-72)
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sgu Clinical allied anatomy-thorax (70-72)
sgu Clinical allied anatomy thorax 70 72
sgu Clinical applied anatomy-thorax (70-72)
what is the reflex arch for the penniculus response?
sensation from skin of trunk over thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves to spinal cord, up cord to lateral thoracic nerve, out cutaneous trunci
what is used clinically to evaluate the level of spinal cord damage?
if the spinal cord damage is at the level of T10, where will the panniculus response not elicit a response?
level 12 of the thoracic vertebrae caudally. (segment 2 vertebrae cranial to level of skin because nerves pass caudoventrally).
what is the surgical opening of the thoracic cavity?
how is the vacuum of the pleural cavity regained when closing the thoracic wall?
maximally inflate the lungs during last part of closure
where is the intercostal space incised to open the thorax and why?
in the center to avoid vessels caudal to ribs
what vessels are of concern in midsternal thoracotomies?
internal thoracic artery and vien
what is the term for segmental fractures of a number of sequential ribs causing the chest wall to move in during inspiration?
what is aspiration pneumonia?
swallowing foreign material into the lungs and subsequent pneumonia
which lobe is the most common site for aspiration pneumonia?
what is the second most common lung lobe?
right middle middle lung lobe (most dependent);
cranial right lung lobe
to which lung lobe will a light, inhaled foreign body (grass awn), which moves by air flow and not gravity tend to?
right caudal lobe, straight shot
what is chylothorax?
lymph in the pleural cavity usually from a ruptured lymphatic vessel (thoracic duct)
what are 3 common locations of clinical blockage of the esophagus in the thorax?
thoracic inlet, base of heart, esophageal hiatus of diaphragm (start of esophagus)
name a dilation of the caudal cervical and thoracic esophagus
what is air in the mediastinum
what is the surgeons pericardium?
sac opened to access epicardial covered heart
what is compression of the heart due to collection of blood of fluid in the pericardiac sac?
what is done with the pericardium after open heart surgery?
left unsutured or only loosely approximated to avoid cardiac tamponade
where doe blood back up into when the right heart is damaged (clinical signs)?
body (venae cavae- ascites, jugular pulse)
what is ascites? what causes it?
fluid in the abdomen, caused by right heart failure
where does blood back up into n left heart failure?
what are cardiomypathies?
progressive cardiac diseases
what is inflammation of the heart muscle?
what parasite may residence in the right ventricle of the dog's heart
heartworms ( dirofilariasis)
what is the normal blood pressure of the dog?
define PRAA (persistent right aortic arch)
right instead of left 4th aortic arch becomes the aorta resulting in entrapment of the esophagus
what structures constrict the esophagus in a persistent right aortic arch?
aorta, ligamentum arteriosum, pulmonary trunk, and base of heart
what is a clinical sign of a persistent right aortic arch?
regurgitates undigested food when a dog weaned to solid food, large particles can't get past this constriction
the constriction due to a persistent right aortic arch causes food to be stopped and the esophagus to balloon cranial to the _______ __ _______
base of heart
how is a persistent aortic arch treated?
ligamentum arteriosum surgically isolated, ligated twice and cut between 2 ligatures
what is the difference between a congenital and a hereditary defect?
: present at birth, can be due to hereditary environmental causes.
: passed onto offspring, may or may not be present at birth
what is a PDA?
patent ductus arteriosus, a failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus (arterial duct) to close
what causes washing machine murmur? and why?
PDA, continuous, thus systolic and diastolic
how is PDA treated?
ends are tied off and cut between them if caught early
what would happen if a reversed PDA was tied off?
blow out lungs, pressure above left ventricle
list the developmental anomalies making up tetralogy of fallot
pulmonic stenosis, overriding aorta, VSD, hypertrophy of right ventricle
what does cyanosis mean?
bluish discoloration of tissues due to poor oxygenation
what are the 3 bumps seen on a DV view of a dog with PDA?
MPA, left auricle, and aorta
of what is a patent ductus venosus an example?
portosystemic shunt (bypass liver)
what are the abnormal sounds caused by blood flow turbulence?
what are the 2 types of murmurs related to location in the heart cycle?
diastolic or systolic murmurs
what cause valvular murmurs?
leaky (insufficient) o narrowed ( stenotic) valves
what could cause a systolic murmur?
semilunar (aortic or pulmonic) stenosis, insufficiency (left>right AV)
what can cause a diastolic murmur?
semilunar (aortic or pulmonic) insufficiency or av stenosis (very rare)
what is the clinical significance of the line of pleural reflection?
demarcates the pleural from the peritoneal cavity
what is pleurocentesis/ thoracocentesis?
surgical puncture or he chest wall for drainage of fluid
where is thoracocenesis done?
middle of the 7-8 intercostal space just dorsal to the costochondral junction
how can the pleural cupula be clinically important?
can open the pleural cavity with an incision near the thoracic inlet.
what is the term for the inflammation of the pleura?
why is pneumothorax usually bilateral in the carnivores?
mediastinum is fenestrated (holes)
what is hyaline membrane disease?
premature parturition before the lung matures with insufficient surfacant produced
in what could a tear in the thoracic part of the trachea result?
how can infections of the neck migrate to the thorax?
down a deep fascia to the endothoracic fascia
what is the normal respiratory rate for dogs? cats?
: 20 breaths/ min
: 25 / min
how does the olecranon and the intercostal spaces relate when standing?
olecranon at the 5th intercostal space or 5th rib
how far cranially does the dome of the diaphragm extend?
6th intercostal space just behind the olecranon/heart
where is the heart located in relationship to the intercostal spaces and the arm muscles?
between 2(3)-5(6) intercostal space, mostly under muscles
what is a memory aid for the heart valve's point of maximum intensity?
P A M 3 4 5, rightAV: low 5th right
outline how you can auscultate the heart with a stethoscope
1st locate the point of elbow (5th ICS), find Lt. AV: 5th ICS, move 1 ICS cranial and up: pulmonic
what vessels should be considered when opening the thorax (how)?
internal thoracic arteries on the thoracic floor of the thorax (don't cut near the sternum);
intercostal vessels and nerves
: caudal to rib (cut in center of intercostal spaces)
describe cavity enter when inserting a needle to either side of the line of pleural reflection
where is the basal border of the lung?
roughly 1-2" craniodorsal to and parallel to the line of pleural reflection
what are the boundaries of the auscultaion triangle?
: caudal border of the triceps brachii muscle
: epaxial muscles
caudoventral:curved line from olecranon to next to the last dorsal intercostal space
generally in relationship to what structure is a lung biopsy performed?
craniodorsal to the basal border of the lung
how is cardiocentesis performed?
into 5th ICS (behind elbow) into palpated heartbeat
what is the location for throacocentesis?
7-8th ICS (intercostal space) at intercostal space level of the olecranon on the right