sgu Clinical allied anatomy-thorax (70-72)

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SGUVet2013
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7762
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sgu Clinical allied anatomy-thorax (70-72)
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2010-02-23 00:07:33
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sgu Clinical allied anatomy thorax 70 72
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sgu Clinical applied anatomy-thorax (70-72)
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  1. what is the reflex arch for the penniculus response?
    sensation from skin of trunk over thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves to spinal cord, up cord to lateral thoracic nerve, out cutaneous trunci
  2. what is used clinically to evaluate the level of spinal cord damage?
    panniculus response
  3. if the spinal cord damage is at the level of T10, where will the panniculus response not elicit a response?
    level 12 of the thoracic vertebrae caudally. (segment 2 vertebrae cranial to level of skin because nerves pass caudoventrally).
  4. what is the surgical opening of the thoracic cavity?
    thoracotomy
  5. how is the vacuum of the pleural cavity regained when closing the thoracic wall?
    maximally inflate the lungs during last part of closure
  6. where is the intercostal space incised to open the thorax and why?
    in the center to avoid vessels caudal to ribs
  7. what vessels are of concern in midsternal thoracotomies?
    internal thoracic artery and vien
  8. what is the term for segmental fractures of a number of sequential ribs causing the chest wall to move in during inspiration?
    flail chest
  9. what is aspiration pneumonia?
    swallowing foreign material into the lungs and subsequent pneumonia
  10. which lobe is the most common site for aspiration pneumonia?
    what is the second most common lung lobe?
    • right middle middle lung lobe (most dependent);
    • cranial right lung lobe
  11. to which lung lobe will a light, inhaled foreign body (grass awn), which moves by air flow and not gravity tend to?
    right caudal lobe, straight shot
  12. what is chylothorax?
    lymph in the pleural cavity usually from a ruptured lymphatic vessel (thoracic duct)
  13. what are 3 common locations of clinical blockage of the esophagus in the thorax?
    thoracic inlet, base of heart, esophageal hiatus of diaphragm (start of esophagus)
  14. name a dilation of the caudal cervical and thoracic esophagus
    megaesophagus
  15. what is air in the mediastinum
    pneumomediastinum
  16. what is the surgeons pericardium?
    sac opened to access epicardial covered heart
  17. what is compression of the heart due to collection of blood of fluid in the pericardiac sac?
    cardiac tamponade
  18. what is done with the pericardium after open heart surgery?
    left unsutured or only loosely approximated to avoid cardiac tamponade
  19. where doe blood back up into when the right heart is damaged (clinical signs)?
    body (venae cavae- ascites, jugular pulse)
  20. what is ascites? what causes it?
    fluid in the abdomen, caused by right heart failure
  21. where does blood back up into n left heart failure?
    lungs
  22. what are cardiomypathies?
    progressive cardiac diseases
  23. what is inflammation of the heart muscle?
    myocarditis
  24. what parasite may residence in the right ventricle of the dog's heart
    heartworms ( dirofilariasis)
  25. what is the normal blood pressure of the dog?
    120/80
  26. define PRAA (persistent right aortic arch)
    right instead of left 4th aortic arch becomes the aorta resulting in entrapment of the esophagus
  27. what structures constrict the esophagus in a persistent right aortic arch?
    aorta, ligamentum arteriosum, pulmonary trunk, and base of heart
  28. what is a clinical sign of a persistent right aortic arch?
    regurgitates undigested food when a dog weaned to solid food, large particles can't get past this constriction
  29. the constriction due to a persistent right aortic arch causes food to be stopped and the esophagus to balloon cranial to the _______ __ _______
    base of heart
  30. how is a persistent aortic arch treated?
    ligamentum arteriosum surgically isolated, ligated twice and cut between 2 ligatures
  31. what is the difference between a congenital and a hereditary defect?
    • congenital: present at birth, can be due to hereditary environmental causes.
    • hereditary: passed onto offspring, may or may not be present at birth
  32. what is a PDA?
    patent ductus arteriosus, a failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus (arterial duct) to close
  33. what causes washing machine murmur? and why?
    PDA, continuous, thus systolic and diastolic
  34. how is PDA treated?
    ends are tied off and cut between them if caught early
  35. what would happen if a reversed PDA was tied off?
    blow out lungs, pressure above left ventricle
  36. list the developmental anomalies making up tetralogy of fallot
    pulmonic stenosis, overriding aorta, VSD, hypertrophy of right ventricle
  37. what does cyanosis mean?
    bluish discoloration of tissues due to poor oxygenation
  38. what are the 3 bumps seen on a DV view of a dog with PDA?
    MPA, left auricle, and aorta
  39. of what is a patent ductus venosus an example?
    portosystemic shunt (bypass liver)
  40. what are the abnormal sounds caused by blood flow turbulence?
    heart murmurs
  41. what are the 2 types of murmurs related to location in the heart cycle?
    diastolic or systolic murmurs
  42. what cause valvular murmurs?
    leaky (insufficient) o narrowed ( stenotic) valves
  43. what could cause a systolic murmur?
    semilunar (aortic or pulmonic) stenosis, insufficiency (left>right AV)
  44. what can cause a diastolic murmur?
    semilunar (aortic or pulmonic) insufficiency or av stenosis (very rare)
  45. what is the clinical significance of the line of pleural reflection?
    demarcates the pleural from the peritoneal cavity
  46. what is pleurocentesis/ thoracocentesis?
    surgical puncture or he chest wall for drainage of fluid
  47. where is thoracocenesis done?
    middle of the 7-8 intercostal space just dorsal to the costochondral junction
  48. how can the pleural cupula be clinically important?
    can open the pleural cavity with an incision near the thoracic inlet.
  49. what is the term for the inflammation of the pleura?
    pleuritis
  50. why is pneumothorax usually bilateral in the carnivores?
    mediastinum is fenestrated (holes)
  51. what is hyaline membrane disease?
    premature parturition before the lung matures with insufficient surfacant produced
  52. in what could a tear in the thoracic part of the trachea result?
    pneumomediastinum
  53. how can infections of the neck migrate to the thorax?
    down a deep fascia to the endothoracic fascia
  54. what is the normal respiratory rate for dogs? cats?
    • dogs: 20 breaths/ min
    • cats : 25 / min
  55. how does the olecranon and the intercostal spaces relate when standing?
    olecranon at the 5th intercostal space or 5th rib
  56. how far cranially does the dome of the diaphragm extend?
    6th intercostal space just behind the olecranon/heart
  57. where is the heart located in relationship to the intercostal spaces and the arm muscles?
    between 2(3)-5(6) intercostal space, mostly under muscles
  58. what is a memory aid for the heart valve's point of maximum intensity?
    P A M 3 4 5, rightAV: low 5th right
  59. outline how you can auscultate the heart with a stethoscope
    1st locate the point of elbow (5th ICS), find Lt. AV: 5th ICS, move 1 ICS cranial and up: pulmonic
  60. what vessels should be considered when opening the thorax (how)?
    • internal thoracic arteries on the thoracic floor of the thorax (don't cut near the sternum);
    • intercostal vessels and nerves: caudal to rib (cut in center of intercostal spaces)
  61. describe cavity enter when inserting a needle to either side of the line of pleural reflection
    • craniodorsal=thorax 1st;
    • caudoventral=abdomen
  62. where is the basal border of the lung?
    roughly 1-2" craniodorsal to and parallel to the line of pleural reflection
  63. what are the boundaries of the auscultaion triangle?
    • cranial: caudal border of the triceps brachii muscle
    • dorsal: epaxial muscles
    • caudoventral:curved line from olecranon to next to the last dorsal intercostal space
  64. generally in relationship to what structure is a lung biopsy performed?
    craniodorsal to the basal border of the lung
  65. how is cardiocentesis performed?
    into 5th ICS (behind elbow) into palpated heartbeat
  66. what is the location for throacocentesis?
    7-8th ICS (intercostal space) at intercostal space level of the olecranon on the right

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