Psych Ch 2

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Psych Ch 2
2011-04-05 18:46:55
psychology vocab

Psychological research methods and statistics
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  1. Sample
    the small group of participants, out of the total number available, that a researcher studies
  2. naturalistic observation
    research method in which the psuchologist observes the subject in a natural setting without interfering
  3. case study
    research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants
  4. survey
    research method in which information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
  5. longitudinal study
    research method in which data are collected about a group of participants over a number of years to assess how certain characteristics change or remain the same during development
  6. cross-sectional study
    research method in which data are collected from groups of participants of different ages and compared so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age
  7. correlation
    the measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of data
  8. hypothesis
    an educated guess about the relationship between two variables
  9. variable
    any factor that is capable of change
  10. experimental group
    the group to which an independent variable is applied
  11. control group
    the group that is treated in the same way as the experimental group except that the experimental treatment (the independent variable) is not applied
  12. self-fulfilling prophecy
    a situation in which a researcher's expectations influence that person's own behavior, and thereby influence the participant's behavior
  13. single-blind experiment
    an experiement in which the participants are unaware of which participants received the treatment
  14. double-blind experiment
    an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants received which treatment
  15. placebo effect
    a change in a participant's illness or behavior that results from a belief that the treatment will have an effect rather that from the actual treatment
  16. statistics
    the branch of mathematics concerned with summarizing and making meaningful inferences from collections of data
  17. descriptive statistics
    the listing and summarizing of data in a pratical, efficient way
  18. frequency distribution
    an arrangement of data that indicates how often a particular score or observation occurs
  19. normal curve
    a graph of frequency distribution shaped like a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve; a graph of normally distributed data
  20. central tendency
    a number that describes something about the "average" score of a distribution
  21. variability
    a measure of difference, or spread of data
  22. standard deviation
    a measure of variability that describes an average distance of every score from the mean
  23. correlation coefficient
    describes the direction and strength of the relationship between two sets of variables
  24. inferential statistics
    numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance