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2011-04-05 19:02:33
Eukarotic Structures

Functional Difference in Eukarotic structures
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  1. Eukaryotic:
    Any organism having as its fundamental structural unit a cell type that contains specialized organelles in the cytoplasm, a membrane-bound nucleus enclosing genetic material organized into chromosomes, and an elaborate syst of division by mytosis or meiosis, characteristic of all life forms except bacteria, blue-green algae, and other primitive organisms.
  2. 5 Organelles contained in microbial eukaryotic cells
    1. Nuclei: DNA containing-defining characteristic of eukaryote

    2. Mitochondria: Energy production

    3. Endoplasmic reticulum: Translation of proteins

    4. Golgi apparatus: package materials for secretion

    5. vacuoles: food or other storage
  3. Each organelle is surrounded by a membrane that defines its inside from its outside
  4. Prokaryotes:
    Do not have organelles
  5. Defining characteristics of eukaryotic cell:
    - employ active transport across the cytoplasmic membrane

    - have an additional type of transport called "bulk transport"
  6. Bulk Transport:
    a cell wants to engulf a large molecule (endocytosis) or secrete whole antibody molecules (exocytosis), it can do so by the creation of a vesicle.
  7. Endocytosis: engulf
    -cell receptor binds to a ligand. The cell membrane then invaginates into the cell and pinches off to form vesicle
  8. Exocytosis: excrete
    -opposite process of endocytosis
  9. Lysosome:
    - digestive organelle
  10. Distinguish between flagella and cilia:
    - similar to each other in cross-section, but flagella are much longer than cilia
  11. Defining characteristic of eukaryotic cell:
    - has a nuclei
  12. Flagella:
    - a long lashlike appendage serving as an organ of locomotion in protozoa

    (sperm cells)
  13. Cilia:
    - hairlike orgonelles, identical to flagella, that line the surfaces in certain cells and beat in rhythm waves, providing locomotion and moving liquids along internal epithelial tissue in animals.

    (eye lashes)