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- Pedile: projects posteriorly to transverse process.
- Lamina: continues from pedicle. Both lamina meet to from the arch.
Processses associated with typical vertebra?
- Spinous process: singular process that projects from dorsal aspect
- Transverse process: projects laterally from junction at pedicle and lamina. Sites for muscle attachments.
- Superior articular process: has facet that allows articulation with superior vertebrae.
- Inferiour articular process: inferior and posterior to Superior articular process. Articulates with inferior vertebrae.
- Transverse foramina: openings in C1-C6/C7 that allow verterbral arteries to the brain.
- Bifid spinous process C2-C6
C1 or Atlas
- Not true vertebrae level.
- Superior articular facets articulate with the occipital condyles to form the atlanto-occipital joint
C2 or Axis
Dens or odontoid process: unique process projecting in a vertical plain superirorly. Articulates with the atlas allowing for circumferencial movements.
- 12 thoracic vertebrae
- spinous processes
- Superior costal facets: superior dorsal aspect of vertebral bodies.
- Inferiror costal facets: inferior dorsal aspect of vertebral bodies.
- Transvers costal facets: lateral most aspects of transverse processes.
- 5 vertebrae
- Blunt or rounded spinous process
- Secondary curviture
- 5 fused segments of bone
- Aricular Surface: superior lateral aspect of sacrum. Articulate with the aricular surface of the ilium to form sacroiliac joint.
- Medial sacral crest: ridge in the midline on the dorsal surface. Fusion of spinous process S1-S5.
- Posterior sacral foramina: lateral on both sides of the medial sacral crest. Allow passage of spinal nerves.
- Superior articular processes of the sacrum: articulate witht the inferior articular process of the 5th lumber.
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