Biology exam III

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anime1003
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77698
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Biology exam III
Updated:
2011-04-06 00:13:47
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Nutrient transportation
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Bio exam
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  1. Endodermis: function
    Gate keeper
  2. Waters pathway into the plant
    endodermis
  3. Transmembrane
    within cells (water channels)
  4. Aploplastic
    • Outside cells (outside membrane)
    • low resistance
  5. symplastic
    within cells (plasmodesmata)
  6. water is forced through the cell membrane at the ____
    endodermis
  7. Casparian strip
    wall the water must be filtered through between cells
  8. Theories of water transport up trees
    • root pressure
    • capillary action
    • cohesion tension
  9. root pressure
    • water pushed upwards from roots
    • root cells actively accumulate ions
  10. capillary action
    • thin tubes
    • meniscus of water (adhering to cell wall)
  11. cohesion tension
    • hydrogen bonds pull each individual atom upwards as evaporation occurs
    • must have evaporation
  12. Stomata close at
    night
  13. guttation
    liquid water expelled by leaves (dew)
  14. cohesion
    water molecules stick to each other
  15. adhesion
    • water molecules stick to cell wall
    • Transpiration
    • pull created by transpiration transmitted down to the roots by hydrogen bonds
  16. Tree trunks ____ when transpiration is highest
    shrink
  17. High presure means____
    low water potential
  18. Plant conundrum
    • need CO2 from air to make food
    • maximise exposure to air
    • air steal water
    • minimize exposure to air
  19. Stomata on ____ of leaf
    bottem
  20. stomatal crypts
    open space where guard cells regulate particle flow
  21. Stomata cause __% water loss
    90
  22. Stomata control____
    transpiration rate and gas exchange
  23. stomata open triggered by_____
    • light
    • low CO2
    • Internal clock
  24. Stomata cloing triggered by___
    • Drought
    • High temperatures
    • Internal clock
  25. Water potential in guard cells___
    changes
  26. Proton gradient
    contol guard cells water potential
  27. Stomata: opening needs
    • ATP to pump H+
    • K+ to compensate for lost H+
  28. Low water potential due to loss of K+ causes_____
    • water inflow and swelling
    • (turgid)
  29. Stoma Close when ____
    • K+ leaves
    • water potential lowers outside cell
  30. C4 photosynthesis
    • CO2 concentrated as 4-C compound
    • Spatial seperation of CO2 uptake and fixation
  31. Phloem
    transports sugar from leaves to other parts of the plant
  32. Flexible system
    direction of flow can change
  33. sugar flows from___to____
    source to sink
  34. source
    photsyenthetic structure that produces sugar
  35. Sink
    stores and uses sugar
  36. phloem sap: components
    • up to 30% sugar
    • minerals
    • amino acids
    • hormones
    • water
  37. Active transport: purpose
    loads sugar into companion cells/seive tube members against concentration gradient
  38. Low water potential at_____
    Seive tube members (STM)
  39. Water flows____ creating pressure
    from xylem
  40. Proton pumps located on_____
    companion cells
  41. Path of sugar
    • Pressure at source
    • Bulk flow to sink
    • Sugar removal at sink
  42. Phloem unloading into growing leaves
    sucrose breakdown allows passive unloading
  43. Sugar in roots is stored in____
    vacuoles
  44. Plants are made mostly of_____
    water
  45. Wet weight
    • amount of water
    • 80-85% weight of plants
  46. Dry weight
    non-water based components of plants
  47. 95% dry weight
    • Carbohydtares
    • Cellulose (C,H,O)
    • Proteins and DNA
  48. 5% dry weight
    Inorganic material
  49. essential nutrients
    • required to complete the life cycle of plant
    • known component in specific structure
  50. Macronutrients
    • fundemental building blocks
    • (C,H,O,P,S,K,N,Ca,Mg)
  51. Micronutrients
    • Trace Catylyst enzymes of cofactors
    • <.01% of plants
  52. Nutrient diffecient creates___
    visible symptoms
  53. Hydroponics
    grown in solution rather than soil
  54. Copper
    essential nutrient
  55. Mobile nutrients
    • deficiency appears in older leaves
    • (can move nutrient needs around plant structure)
  56. Not Mobile
    • Deficiency appears in yong leaves
    • cannot move nutrients
  57. Fertalizer
    adds essential nutrients to soil
  58. Need for N in fertlizer
    • makes proteins
    • nucleic acids
    • amino acids
  59. Need for P in fertalizer
    • sugar phosphate
    • backbone of nucleic acids
    • makes phospholipids for membrane
    • ATP
  60. Need for K in fertalizer
    regulates cellular waste balance
  61. Weathering
    creates soil
  62. Soil classification
    • Gravel
    • Sand
    • Silt
    • Clay
  63. Soil properties
    • texture
    • pores for air and water
    • nutrients avalable
  64. Organic material for soil
    • more nutrients available
    • water storage
  65. Humus
    organisms create organic matter
  66. 2 types of soil that have a negative charge and bind cations
    • clay
    • organic matter
  67. Sand: disadvantage
    • water drains through
    • poor capacity for cation exchange
  68. Sand: Advantage
    • many air containing spaces
    • doesn't pack tight
  69. Clay: disadvantage
    • few air containing spaces
    • Packs tight
  70. Clay:Advantage
    • holds water well
    • large capicity for cation exchange
  71. Organic matter: advantage
    • holds water well
    • large source of nutrients
    • high capacity for cation exchange
    • contains many air spaces
    • doens't pack tight
  72. Organic matter: disadvantage
    None
  73. Mineral uptake occurs thorugh_____
    root hairs

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