M and C Exam 3 book terms ch 6,9, 10

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M and C Exam 3 book terms ch 6,9, 10
2011-04-06 00:38:03
Exam book terms

M and C Exam 3 book terms ch 6,9, 10
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  1. nondeclarative memories
    memories removed from awareness so its difficult if not impossible to accurately talk about them.
  2. classical conditioning
    • Pavlovian conditioning
    • Ivan Pavlov
  3. stimulus response association
    in classical cond. the CS directly causes the CR
  4. stimulus stimulus association
    • CS is associated with the US which leads to production of CR
    • CS predicts US which elicits CR
  5. contiguity learning
    learning may occur when an NS and US occur near each other in time.
  6. contingency learning
    • when an organism is sensitive to the causal structure rather than simply relying on occurrences in the same period of time.
    • knowing a cause-effect relationship is there
  7. extinction
    when a CS is presented many times without a US the organism will stop responding.
  8. spontaneous recovery
    after extinction and a long delay the CS is presented again, the Cr reemerges but isn't as strong.
  9. savings
    after learning and forgetting something it will take you less time to learn it again later
  10. generalization
    memory for the CS can be activated by stimuli that resemble the original US not just the US
  11. discrimination
    organism learns that some stimuli that are similar to the original CS are not predictive
  12. blocking
    after learning a CS, a new NS is presented; b/c the person is focusing on the CS the new NS is not learned but blocked out
  13. higher order conditioning
    • NS is presented before a CS so its not blocked out
    • NS predicts CS and CR is observed for new stimulus also
  14. biological preparedness
    different organisms are biologically prepared to learn some associations more easily than others.
  15. instrumental conditioning
    • (operant conditioning)
    • organism acts on environment and remembers consequences positive or negative; act is reinforced or not
  16. procedural memory
  17. stages of skill acquisition
    • cognitive stage - having to think about what youre doing
    • associative stage - can more quickly retrieve the knowledge needed for the task
    • autonomous stage - task becomes largely unconscious and thinking about it may interfere with the task
  18. long term working memory
    set of retrieval cues held in working memory that reference info in long term memory.
  19. word stem completion
    • indirect (implicit) memory test
    • when given the first few letters of a word, asked to complete it with first word that comes to mind.
  20. word fragment completion
    • indirect memory test
    • when given letters in a word throughout the word, asked to complete the word
    • A_ _ A _ _ I N
  21. lexical decision task
    • indirect memory task
    • given a string of letter, asked whether its a word or not
  22. naming task
    • indirect memory task
    • people read words presented visually as fast as possible
  23. perceptual identification
    • non verbal indirect memory test
    • word presented under distored conditions, asked to identify
  24. implicit memory
    • data driven
    • seeing a cloud in the sky
  25. explicit memory
    • conceptually driven
    • making shapes out of a cloud
  26. artificial grammars
    ppl can learn made up grammar implicitly even if not explicitly
  27. inhibition
    ppl retrieve one concept for a category more slowly if they have recently retrieved several other examples of the category.
  28. 3 levels of categorization
    • basic
    • subordinate
    • superordinate
  29. basic
    • most frequent
    • catecories defined by features that give enough detail to let us treat diff members of the same category as similar but without giving more detail than needed.
    • saw, dogs, chair, drum
  30. subordinate
    • gives detailed info about more specific portions of a basic category
    • camping saw, mini poodle, leather recliner, bass drum.
  31. superordinate
    • very general info that captures a wide range of basic level categories
    • tool, pet, furniture, musical instrument.
  32. central tendency
    averaged ideal for the category
  33. graded membership
    some members of a category are thought of as better members in the category than others.
  34. family resemblance
    members of a category share characteristics.
  35. classical view of categorization
    categories are defined by necessary and sufficient features.
  36. prototype model of categorization
    categories are determined by a mental representation thats an average of all the category members.
  37. exemplar theory
    people use all category members to make decisions.
  38. ad hoc categories
    creating new categories on the fly.
  39. psychologicla essentialism
    all members of a category have some underlying essence that people may or may not be aware of
  40. semantic distance effect
    • ppl quicker to make judgements about the order of two items as the distance between them increases.
    • identify elephant bigger than bunny faster than dog is bigger than bunny.
  41. semantic congruity effect
    • faster to judge trelationshi pb/t items if the valence of the comparison term matches the end of the ordered dimension at which the objects are located
    • easier to judge that Jefferson was president before Monroe than that Monroe was president after Jefferson.
  42. serial position effect
    faster to judge relationships between items at ends of an ordered dimension than in the middle.
  43. network theory model
    • models semantic memory connections
    • strict hierarchy system with directly associated properties and takes on characteristics of nodes higher than it with inheritance.