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memories removed from awareness so its difficult if not impossible to accurately talk about them.
- Pavlovian conditioning
- Ivan Pavlov
stimulus response association
in classical cond. the CS directly causes the CR
stimulus stimulus association
- CS is associated with the US which leads to production of CR
- CS predicts US which elicits CR
learning may occur when an NS and US occur near each other in time.
- when an organism is sensitive to the causal structure rather than simply relying on occurrences in the same period of time.
- knowing a cause-effect relationship is there
when a CS is presented many times without a US the organism will stop responding.
after extinction and a long delay the CS is presented again, the Cr reemerges but isn't as strong.
after learning and forgetting something it will take you less time to learn it again later
memory for the CS can be activated by stimuli that resemble the original US not just the US
organism learns that some stimuli that are similar to the original CS are not predictive
after learning a CS, a new NS is presented; b/c the person is focusing on the CS the new NS is not learned but blocked out
higher order conditioning
- NS is presented before a CS so its not blocked out
- NS predicts CS and CR is observed for new stimulus also
different organisms are biologically prepared to learn some associations more easily than others.
- (operant conditioning)
- organism acts on environment and remembers consequences positive or negative; act is reinforced or not
stages of skill acquisition
- cognitive stage - having to think about what youre doing
- associative stage - can more quickly retrieve the knowledge needed for the task
- autonomous stage - task becomes largely unconscious and thinking about it may interfere with the task
long term working memory
set of retrieval cues held in working memory that reference info in long term memory.
word stem completion
- indirect (implicit) memory test
- when given the first few letters of a word, asked to complete it with first word that comes to mind.
word fragment completion
- indirect memory test
- when given letters in a word throughout the word, asked to complete the word
- A_ _ A _ _ I N
lexical decision task
- indirect memory task
- given a string of letter, asked whether its a word or not
- indirect memory task
- people read words presented visually as fast as possible
- non verbal indirect memory test
- word presented under distored conditions, asked to identify
- data driven
- seeing a cloud in the sky
- conceptually driven
- making shapes out of a cloud
ppl can learn made up grammar implicitly even if not explicitly
ppl retrieve one concept for a category more slowly if they have recently retrieved several other examples of the category.
3 levels of categorization
- most frequent
- catecories defined by features that give enough detail to let us treat diff members of the same category as similar but without giving more detail than needed.
- saw, dogs, chair, drum
- gives detailed info about more specific portions of a basic category
- camping saw, mini poodle, leather recliner, bass drum.
- very general info that captures a wide range of basic level categories
- tool, pet, furniture, musical instrument.
averaged ideal for the category
some members of a category are thought of as better members in the category than others.
members of a category share characteristics.
classical view of categorization
categories are defined by necessary and sufficient features.
prototype model of categorization
categories are determined by a mental representation thats an average of all the category members.
people use all category members to make decisions.
ad hoc categories
creating new categories on the fly.
all members of a category have some underlying essence that people may or may not be aware of
semantic distance effect
- ppl quicker to make judgements about the order of two items as the distance between them increases.
- identify elephant bigger than bunny faster than dog is bigger than bunny.
semantic congruity effect
- faster to judge trelationshi pb/t items if the valence of the comparison term matches the end of the ordered dimension at which the objects are located
- easier to judge that Jefferson was president before Monroe than that Monroe was president after Jefferson.
serial position effect
faster to judge relationships between items at ends of an ordered dimension than in the middle.
network theory model
- models semantic memory connections
- strict hierarchy system with directly associated properties and takes on characteristics of nodes higher than it with inheritance.