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Prokaryote "Binary Fission"
- Form of "Asexual Production"
- 2 daughter cells are identical to parent, (if parent is flawed-> both daughter cells are flawed)
Somatic Cells (Definition)
Body Cells (except sperm and egg) that are Eukaryotes.
Human Body has what # of chromosomes?
- Chromosomes #1-22
- Carry genes for traits other than sex chromosomes
# of Chromosomes denoted by "N" Ploidy?
- ex. (N=23) 2(n) = 2(23) = 46
"Sets" of Chromosomes
- Haploid= 1 "1(n)"
- Diploid= 2 "2(n)"
- Triploid= 3 "(n)"
ex. Organism with 15 chromosomes gets 3 sets.... 3(15) = 45 (Triploid)
Cell Cycle: "Somatic Cell Production"
- Starts with 1 cell and forms 2 daughter cells
- Interphase (happens majority of time) has 3 phases:
- -G1: Cell grows (expands)
- -S: Duplicate DNA
- -G2: Cell Preps for Mitosis
Then comes "Mitotic phase"
Mitotic Phase Diagram (Somatic Cell Production)
- 1st stage of Mitosis
- Cytoplasm: Formation of centrosomes and spindle fibers
- Nucleus: Original DNA attaches to copied DNA
- 2nd Stage of Mitosis
- Nucleus dissapears
- spindle fibers attach to chromosomes
- 3rd Stage in Mitosis
- Chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the cell
- 4th Stage in Mitosis
- Spindle fibers pull chromosomes to edges
- 5th Stage of Mitosis
- Cytoplasm: Centrosomes and spindle fibers disappear
- Nucleus forms
- Middle part is the Pinching "Cleavage Furrow"
- Seperate cytoplasm formation of 2 daughter cells
- Cell wall is the difference between plant and animal cell. Animal cell has cleavage furrow and plant cell has cell plate.
Consequence of Cell Cycle
- flaw in cell cycle
- leads to tumor
- tumor: mass of abnormal cells
Process of Cancer
- 1) Starts out with tumor and glandalour tissue
- 2) Tumor cells invade neighboring tissue
- 3) Metastasize: Cancer moves through circulatory system due to blood vessels attaching to tumor cells
Formation of Tumors (Types of Tumors)
Benign Tumor: Remains at site of origin and disrupts function of surrounding organ
Malignant Tumor: Spreads
Naming Cancers (Based on site of origin)
- Carcinomas: External or internal lining (Skin/organs)
- Sarcomas: Tissue that supports body (Bones and muscle)
- Lukemias: Blood forming tissue
Gametic Cells (Features)
- Contain Sperm and Egg
- Form of "Sexual reproduction"
- Haploid- 1 set of chromosomes
- Starts with diploid cell (2n)
- One diploid tunrs into 4 haploids
- 2 cell division can lead to "crossing over" where DNA switches between homologous chromosomes
Gametic Prophase 1
chromosomes 1, 12, 23 come together.
Alterations in Chromosome Number
- 1) Karyotyping: Display of chromosomes
- a) Down Syndrome- individual has extra #21 chromosome and is sexually undeveloped (XXX) trisomy
- Sex Chromosomes:
- a) Kline Felter Syndrome: XXY (affects men) where men have smaller testes and enlarged breasts, sterol.
- b) Turner Syndrome X "single X"(Affects women) -Physical features altered (short stature, flat face, extra skin on neck)
- -normal intelligence
- XXY- Males taller than most men
- XXX- Females: no intelligence issue