Cell Cycle

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Author:
ckluckner
ID:
77707
Filename:
Cell Cycle
Updated:
2011-04-06 00:42:11
Tags:
Mitosis Cell Cycle
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Description:
Biology Cell Cycle
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  1. Prokaryote "Binary Fission"
    • Form of "Asexual Production"
    • 2 daughter cells are identical to parent, (if parent is flawed-> both daughter cells are flawed)
  2. Somatic Cells (Definition)
    Body Cells (except sperm and egg) that are Eukaryotes.
  3. Human Body has what # of chromosomes?
    46
  4. Autosomes
    • Chromosomes #1-22
    • Carry genes for traits other than sex chromosomes
  5. # of Chromosomes denoted by "N" Ploidy?
    • 23
    • ex. (N=23) 2(n) = 2(23) = 46
  6. "Sets" of Chromosomes
    • Haploid= 1 "1(n)"
    • Diploid= 2 "2(n)"
    • Triploid= 3 "(n)"

    ex. Organism with 15 chromosomes gets 3 sets.... 3(15) = 45 (Triploid)
  7. Cell Cycle: "Somatic Cell Production"
    • Starts with 1 cell and forms 2 daughter cells
    • Interphase (happens majority of time) has 3 phases:
    • -G1: Cell grows (expands)
    • -S: Duplicate DNA
    • -G2: Cell Preps for Mitosis

    Then comes "Mitotic phase"
  8. Mitotic Phase Diagram (Somatic Cell Production)
  9. Prophase
    • 1st stage of Mitosis
    • Cytoplasm: Formation of centrosomes and spindle fibers
    • Nucleus: Original DNA attaches to copied DNA
  10. Prometaphase
    • 2nd Stage of Mitosis
    • Nucleus dissapears
    • spindle fibers attach to chromosomes
  11. Metaphase
    • 3rd Stage in Mitosis
    • Chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the cell
  12. Anaphase
    • 4th Stage in Mitosis
    • Spindle fibers pull chromosomes to edges
  13. Telophase
    • 5th Stage of Mitosis
    • Cytoplasm: Centrosomes and spindle fibers disappear
    • Nucleus forms
    • Middle part is the Pinching "Cleavage Furrow"
  14. Cytokinesis
    • Seperate cytoplasm formation of 2 daughter cells
    • Cell wall is the difference between plant and animal cell. Animal cell has cleavage furrow and plant cell has cell plate.
  15. Purpose of Cell Cycle
    • Repair
    • Make new cells
    • Grow
  16. Consequence of Cell Cycle
    • Cancer:
    • flaw in cell cycle
    • leads to tumor
    • tumor: mass of abnormal cells
  17. Process of Cancer
    • 1) Starts out with tumor and glandalour tissue
    • 2) Tumor cells invade neighboring tissue
    • 3) Metastasize: Cancer moves through circulatory system due to blood vessels attaching to tumor cells
  18. Formation of Tumors (Types of Tumors)
    Benign Tumor: Remains at site of origin and disrupts function of surrounding organ

    Malignant Tumor: Spreads
  19. Naming Cancers (Based on site of origin)
    • Carcinomas: External or internal lining (Skin/organs)
    • Sarcomas: Tissue that supports body (Bones and muscle)
    • Lukemias: Blood forming tissue
  20. Gametic Cells (Features)
    • Contain Sperm and Egg
    • Form of "Sexual reproduction"
    • Haploid- 1 set of chromosomes
  21. Gametic Production
    • Meiosis:
    • Starts with diploid cell (2n)
    • One diploid tunrs into 4 haploids
    • 2 cell division can lead to "crossing over" where DNA switches between homologous chromosomes
  22. Gametic Prophase 1
    chromosomes 1, 12, 23 come together.
  23. Alterations in Chromosome Number
    • 1) Karyotyping: Display of chromosomes
    • Autosomes:
    • a) Down Syndrome- individual has extra #21 chromosome and is sexually undeveloped (XXX) trisomy

    • Sex Chromosomes:
    • a) Kline Felter Syndrome: XXY (affects men) where men have smaller testes and enlarged breasts, sterol.
    • b) Turner Syndrome X "single X"(Affects women) -Physical features altered (short stature, flat face, extra skin on neck)
    • -sterol
    • -normal intelligence

    • XXY- Males taller than most men
    • XXX- Females: no intelligence issue

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