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What is congnition??
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
What are concepts?
a mental grouping of similiar objects, events, idea, or people
mental emage or best example of a category
provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category
method logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
(ex. trying to bake the perfect cake from scratch)
simple thinking strategy that oftem allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently
(speedier but more error prone.)
sudden flash of inspiration
What are the two cognitive tendencies?
confirmation bias and fixation
confirming a hypothesis with facts
inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective
types of fixation
mental set and functional fixedness
approaching a problem in a particular way, that has been successful in the past
tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed and unchanged
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent.
(may lead one to ignore other relevant information)
estimating events based on their availability in memory
the way an issue is posed
the tendency for one's preexisiting beliefs to distort logical reasoning
clinging to one's initial conceptions after proven wrong
programming a computer to think like a human
smallest distictive sound unit
- (consonants are more imormative than vowels)
- (changes in phonmems produce changes in meaning)
smallest unit that careied meaning
a system of rules (semantics and syntax) that enables us to communicate with each other.
- set of rules to derive meaning from morphomes; study of meaning
- (ex. adding -ed to make past tense)
rules we use to order words into sentences
3 to 4 months
age 1 to 2
two word stage
age 2: telegraphoc speech: evidence of grammar
rapid language acqusition after 2 years
complex sentences and double meaning
language develops with association, imitaion, reinforcement
objective to skinner
deaf children learn to speak
inborn universal grammar
objectives to chomsky
learn 1st few years when the brain is sill fresh
whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
(may not determine but does influence what we think)
thinking without language
- procedural memory
- think in images (ex. stop sign)
- think w/o awareness (ex. instinct)
- language influences thinking and thinking influences language
do animals think??
animals do think
do animals communicate?
communicate but not with language: communicate fo survival