ANTH2700L1

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purplerubycrystal
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77718
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ANTH2700L1
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2011-04-06 01:43:15
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ANTH2700L1
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ANTH2700L1
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  1. Ancestors left Africa
    150,000-200,000 years ago
  2. loss of heat to a cool surface
    conduction
  3. warm layer of air around you exchanges with cool layer of air; cold feeling.
    convection
  4. carries heat away from your body, raises heat in the room
    radiation
  5. shortening and thickening of body parts; rule of attenuation
    allen's rule
  6. increased surface are to mass in hot climes
    Bergman's rule
  7. 1 degree/gram of substance/degree celcius
    specific heat
  8. chemical analysis and regulation

    which salts?
    • hypothalamus
    • sodium and potassium
  9. to urniate away sodium

    who has it?
    • naturiuatic hormone
    • Europeans
  10. north and south of 66 degrees 30 minutes
    arctic circle
  11. 20 degrees of either side of the equator
    tropics
  12. prob with gas exchange at 0 humidity
    membrane between vessel and airsac must be moist
  13. mucus covered surface area inside the nose for moistues
    turbuinates
  14. flat face: wind chill effect; why?
    low pressure sucks out heat
  15. how much extra weight deos the female need?
    10%
  16. eye fold?
    epicathic
  17. Asian cold adapptiaions
    • epicathic eye fold
    • no or reduced sinusus
    • flat nose
    • flaired cheek bones
    • facial foramina
  18. 1 lb of fat =
    two meals; 800 cal
  19. frogs do what in winter?
    esturnate
  20. cell membrane made of:
    unsaturated fatty acids
  21. austrailian aboriginies cold sleep cycle length

    mechanisms?
    • 45 min
    • vasoconstriction
    • shivering
  22. white people response to cold
    length of cycle?
    • Hunter's-Flush reaction
    • 15 min
  23. ionising radiation (3)
    • nutrinos
    • cosmic/thermal radiation
    • UV
  24. High altitude
    3000 meters/10,000 feet
  25. skin unctions 3
    • acid mantle- protection
    • synthasis-vit. D, hormones
    • holesterol, folic acid
  26. how mant air sacs?

    how many more for high altitude adaptation?
    • 300 million
    • 15-20%
  27. sea level RBC

    high altitude RBC
    • 3-3.5 million
    • 4-6.5 million
  28. how many O2 can hemoglobin carry?
    4 molecules
  29. square feet of capillare surface area?
    75 square feet
  30. saroche
    hypoxia; mountain sickness
  31. makes you make more red blood calls

    where
    • erythropopetin
    • in bone marrow
  32. high altiue person at sea level problem
    polycythemia
  33. trial and error eating
    agonistic behavior
  34. what makes craving/drive
    communication between the hypothalamus and cortex; face
  35. earth eating
    clayophagia
  36. Aversion mechanisms
    gustatory
  37. goiter

    cure?
    thyroid swelling

    iodie
  38. E=mtre
    • # of people
    • time
    • rate of consumption
    • efficency
  39. after is was eaten
    enteric
  40. three levels host-parasite co-evolution
    • parasitism- virulance
    • commencalism-tolerance
    • mutualism- benificial
  41. new cases of disease per unit time

    number of cases at a time
    • incidence
    • prevanlece
  42. animal born infections
    zoonoses
  43. 2 kinds of immunity
    • general- general/keeps out
    • adaptive-specific
  44. adaptive immunity of skin and mucos membranes (3)
    • normal flora
    • acid mantle
    • secretions- lysozymes
  45. secretions (2)
    • defensins- antibiotics
    • compliments- opsonins "dressings", MAC (membrane attack complex)
  46. "dressings" process (3)
    • called opsonins
    • dress bacteric
    • macrophage eats it
  47. 2 kinds of macrophages
    • wandering
    • stationary
  48. equals hydrostatic pressure of the heart
    inflamiation
  49. two halves of adaptive immunity
    • B-cell system
    • T-call system
  50. immunity chromosome?

    genes?
    • #6
    • MHC
  51. moms antibodies in her...
    cholostrom and milk
  52. B-cell system; new pathogen process in a nut shell (3)
    • presentation complex
    • cloning selection
    • keep memory cells
  53. old pathoigen?
    • skin presentation
    • skip clonal selection
  54. T-cell system when? (3)
    • pathogen goes inside a cell
    • cancer
    • kick in B-cell system
  55. Go wrong with immune system? (3)
    • hypo-immunity- nutrition/genetic (antivodies are made of protien)
    • hyper-immunity- allergies
    • auto -immune- no see self-marker
  56. type 1 reaction
    anaphalactic reaction
  57. magic number for people groups? We they reality/ face recognition stops
    300-400
  58. number one guy in agg society
    redistributive agent
  59. city with salt and no agg.
    Jericho
  60. band to agriculture
    territoriality to boundary
  61. soldgirs
    retainers
  62. alters the breeding structure of a population (3)
    • infection
    • starvation
    • trauma

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