CH12: Psychological Disorders

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ht2lvu
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77729
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CH12: Psychological Disorders
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2011-04-06 03:22:48
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psychology
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  1. psychopathology
    any pattern of emotions, behaviors, or thoughts inappropriate to the situation & leading to personal distress or the inability to achieve important goals
  2. hallucinations
    false sensory experiences that may suggest mental disorder
  3. delusions
    • extrene disorder of thinking
    • persistent false beliefs
    • hallmark of paranoid disorders
  4. affect
    refers to emotion or mood
  5. medical model
    view that mental disorders are diseases that have physical causes & require specific treatments
  6. DSM-IV
    • 4th edition of Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
    • classification system most widely accepted psychiatric in US
  7. neurosis
    • before DSIM-IV
    • label for subjective distress or self-defeating behavior that did not show signs of brain abnormalities or grossly irrational thinking
  8. psychosis
    disorder involving profound disturbances in perception, rational thinking, or affect
  9. mood disorders
    • abnormal disturbances in emotion or mood
    • includes bipolar & unipolar disorder
    • aka. affective disorders
  10. major depression
    form of depression that does not alternate with mania
  11. seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
    • DSM-IV course specifier for mood disorders
    • believed to be form of depression caused by deprivation of sunlight
  12. bipolar disorder
    mental abnormality involving swings of mood from mania to depression
  13. anxiety disorders
    • mental problems characterized mainly by anxiety
    • panic disorder, specific phobias, & OCD
  14. generalized anxiety disorder
    psychological problem characterized by persistent & pervasive feelings of anxiety, w/o any external causes
  15. panic disorder
    • disturbance marked by panic attacks that have no obvious connection w/ events in the person's present experience
    • victim free of anxiety between attacks
  16. agoraphobia
    • fear of public places & open spaces
    • accompanies panic disorder
  17. phobias
    group of anxiety disorders involving a pathalogical fear of a specific objector situation
  18. preparednedd hypothesis
    notion that we have innate tendency, acquired through natural selection, to respond quickly & automatically to stimuli that posed s survival threat to our ancestors
  19. obsessive-compulsive disorder
    condition characterized by patterns or persistent, unwanted thoughts & behaviors
  20. somatoform disorders
    • psychological problems appearing in the form of bodily symptoms or physical complaints
    • weakness or excessive worry about disease
    • include conversion disorder & hypochondriasis
  21. conversion disorder
    • type of somatoform disorder
    • marked by paralysis, weakness, or loss of sensation but w/o discernible physical cause
  22. hypochondriasis
    • somatoform disorder involving excessive concern about health & disease
    • aka. hypochondria
  23. dissociative disorders
    • group of pathologies involving "fragmentation" of the personality
    • some parts of personality have become detached or dissociated from other parts
  24. dissociative amnesia
    • psychologically induced loss of memory for personal info
    • one's identity or residence
  25. dissociative fugue
    same as dissociative amnesia, but with the addition of "flight" from one's home, family, & job
  26. depersonalization disorder
    • abnomality involving the sensation that mind & body have seperated
    • "out-of-body" experience
  27. dissociative identity disorder/ multiple personality disorder
    condition in which an individual displays multiple identities or personalities
  28. anorexia nervosa
    • eating disorder that involves persistent loss of appetite that endangers one's health
    • stems from emotional/physiological reasons rather than from organic causes
  29. bulimia nervosa
    eating disorder characterized by eating binges followed by "purges" induced by vomiting or laxatives
  30. schizophrenia
    psychotic disorder involving distortions in thoughts, perceptions, &/or emotions
  31. diathesis-stress hypothesis
    • in reference to schizophrenia
    • genetic factors place the individual at risk while environmental stress factors transform this potential into an actual schizophrenic disorder
  32. personlity disorders
    conditions involving a chronic, pervasive, inflexible, & maladaptive pattern of thinking, emotion, social relationships, or impulse control
  33. narcissistic personality disorder
    • characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance
    • preoccupation w/ fantasies of success or power & a need for constant attention or admiration
  34. antisocial personality disorder
    characterized by a long-standing pattern of irresponsible behavior indicating a lack of conscience & a diminished sense of responsibility to others
  35. borderline personality disorder
    unstable personality given to impulse behavior
  36. autism
    a developmental disorder marked by disabilities in language, social interaction, & the ability to understand another person's state of mind
  37. dyslexia
    • a reading disability
    • thought by some experts to involve a brain disorder
  38. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    developmental disability involving short attention span, distractibility & extreme difficulty in remaining inactive for any period
  39. insanity
    legal term referring to a person who is unable, because of mental disorder or defect, to conform his or her behavior to the law
  40. generalized anxiety disorder
    panic disorder
    agoraphobia
    phobias
    obsessive-compulsive disorder
    post-traumatic stress disorder
    anxiety disorders
  41. major depression
    dysthymia
    seasonal affective disorder
    bi-polar disorder
    mood disorders
  42. disorganized
    catatonic
    paranoid
    undifferentiated
    residual
    schizophrenia
  43. dissociative amnesia
    dissociatve fugue
    depersonalization disorder
    dissociative identity disorder
    dissociative disorders
  44. autism
    ADHD
    childhood disorders
  45. anorexia nervosa
    bulimia nervosa
    eating disorders
  46. conversion disorder
    hypochondriasis
    somatoform disorders
  47. paranoid
    schizoid
    schizotypal
    anti-social
    borderline
    histrionic
    narcissistic
    avoidant
    dependent
    obsessive-compulsive
    personality disorders

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