Cancer test.txt

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corinab04
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Cancer test.txt
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2010-02-24 23:14:36
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Cancer test
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Cancer Test
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  1. What are the normal lab values for Hgb?
    12-18
  2. What are the normal lab values for Hct?
    37-52
  3. What is a biopsy?
    Removal of a piece of tissue for examination & to establish a diagnosis
  4. What are the three types of biopsies?
    Incisional, excisional & needle aspiration
  5. What is an incisional biopsy?
    Removal of a portion of tissue
  6. What is an excisional biopsy?
    Removal of a complete lesion/tumor
  7. What is a needle aspiration biopsy?
    Aspiration of fluid or tissue
  8. What does an elevation of alkaline phosphatase indicate?
    Metastasis to the bone or liver
  9. What does an increase in serum calcium indicate?
    Cancer of the thyroid
  10. What must a pt NOT do the night before a serum calcitonin level test?
    Eat or drink
  11. When does production of CEA stop?
    Before birth
  12. What type of cancer causes an increase in carcinoembryonic antigen?
    Colorectal cancer
  13. What does the PSA blood marker indicate?
    Prostate cancer
  14. What does the CA-125 marker indicate?
    Ovarian cancer
  15. What is the normal lab value for PSA?
    0-4
  16. What is PSA most widely used for?
    To determine effectiveness of cancer treatment
  17. What is the normal lab value for CA-125?
    35
  18. What must a person NOT eat for the prior 4 days before a stool exam?
    Red meat, turnips, melons, aspirin, vit C
  19. How many stools must an occult be tested on?
    3 consecutive
  20. What is palliative treatment?
    Therapy designed to relive or reduce the intensity of uncomfortable symptoms, but that does not produce a cure
  21. When is radiation treatment used?
    For cancer in lymph nodes or to treat tumors that cannot be remove
  22. What should the pt be taught regarding external radiation?
    Avoid sunlight & direct heat or cold to the affected area
  23. What type of diet is indicated in a pt receiving external radiation?
    High protein, high calories, 2-3 q of water
  24. Where should the nurse stand when treating a pt with internal radiation?
    The greatest distance away from the site, at least 6 feet
  25. Who should not visit internal radiation implant patients?
    Kids under 18 & pregnant women
  26. When cancer of the cervix is treated with a radioactive applicator, how is the patient positioned?
    Supine with head of bed no higher than 45 degrees
  27. What type of diet is indicated for a pt with a radioactive applicator?
    Low-residue to minimize perstalsis
  28. What is kept in the room of a pt treated with radioactive applicator?
    Long-handled forceps & a special lead container
  29. What are the risk factors associated with cancer?
    Smoking, dietary habits, exposure to radiation, exposure to environment and chemical carcinogens, smokeless tobacco, & alcohol
  30. What diets are attributable to cancer?
    High-fat, low fiber
  31. How is a person exposed to radiation everyday?
    By the sun
  32. How does chemotherapy work?
    By interfering with the cells� ability to multiply or reproduce
  33. What is a common problem for a pt receiving chemo?
    Leukopenia
  34. Where is most transplantation bone marrow obtained from?
    Posterior iliac crest
  35. How much bone marrow is extracted?
    600-2500 ml
  36. How long can bone marrow be kept?
    3 years
  37. What is a syngenic bone marrow transplant?
    A donation from an identical twin
  38. What is stomatitis?
    A mouth inflammation due to destruction of normal cells
  39. What type of diet is indicated for a pt with stomatitis?
    Soft or liquid
  40. What is cachexi?
    ill health and malnutrition marked by emaciation & associated with cancer
  41. What is the best approach in dealing with a pt with terminal cancer?
    Honestly & openly
  42. What is the primary focus of hospice?
    To enhance the quality of life
  43. What must the nurse take advantage of in the pt with terminal cancer?
    Time available to promote self-care
  44. When caring for a pt with terminal cancer, what must be written on the care plan?
    Plans for pt education
  45. What is the goal in discharge planning with the pt with terminal cancer?
    Continuity of care
  46. What are the warning signs of cancer?
    • Changes in bowel/bladder habits
    • A sore throat that does not heal
    • Unusual bleeding or discharge
    • Thickening lump
    • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
    • Obvious change in warts or moles
    • Nagging cough or hoarseness
  47. When should a women perform a breast self exam?
    2-3 days after her period ends
  48. When should a man check his scrotum?
    Monthly, after a warm bath or shower
  49. What does a temp of 100 or more indicate in the pt receiving chemo?
    An impending infection
  50. What is one of the most common complications of the mouth of a chemo pt?
    Swallowing problems and systemic infections
  51. What should the chemo pt rinse their mouth with every 2-4 hours?
    Normal saline or sodium bicarbonate
  52. What should the pt taking chemo do to prevent lung infection?
    Cough, deep breathe, use incentive spirometer
  53. What two types of colony-stimulating factors can prevent or manage neutropenia?
    G-CSF & GM-CSF
  54. Why is fatigue a major problem for pts on chemo who have anemia?
    Decreased oxygenation to tissues from the decreased hemoglobin
  55. What is tumor lysis syndrome?
    Rapid lysis of malignant cells as a result of chemotherapy
  56. What nutritional problems most frequently occur in the pt with cancer?
    Malnutrition, anorexia, stomatitis, altered taste sensation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and mucositis
  57. What can happen to a pt who is inadequately nourished?
    Their normal cells will not be able to recover and the immune system will be depleted
  58. What foods are suggested to facilitate repair and regeneration of cells?
    High-calorie
  59. When should a nurse suggest to the physician the need for a nutritional supplement?
    As soon as a 5% weight loss is noted
  60. Why does a cancer pt experience an alteration in taste sensation?
    Cancer cells release substances that resemble amino acids and stimulate the bitter taste buds
  61. What is checked in a CBC?
    RBC, WBC, Platelet, Hgb, Hct
  62. What does a PT indicate?
    Rapidity of blood clotting
  63. What are the normal lab values for a PT?
    11-12.5 seconds
  64. What are the normal lab values for INR?
    .7-1.8
  65. What does a PTT indicate?
    Fibrin clot formation
  66. A pt presents with mouth pain 10 days after chemo. On inspection, the nurse finds the inside of the mouth is erythematous, edematous, and try. What is this condition?
    Stomatitis
  67. A pt has metastatic breast cancer with involvement of her L5 vertebral body. She is paralyzed from the waist down with incontinence of stool and urine. She is undergoing radiation for spinal cord compression. What is an appropriate nursing diagnosis?
    Risk for impaired skin integrity, related to prolonged immobility and
  68. incontinenceA pt with colon cancer is receiving combined radiation and chemo and is suffering from diarrhea. What is this related to?
    Treatments irritating effect on the mucosa of the GI tract
  69. What is the current recommendation for first-time baseline mammogram in asymptomatic women?
    Ages 35-39
  70. To maintain optimal pain control in a pt with terminal lung cancer, when should the scheduling of oral analgesics generally be?
    At scheduled intervals
  71. What are increasingly important with the growing population of cancer survivors?
    Cancer preventions and health promotion behaviors for pt with a diagnosis of cancer
  72. A pt receiving chemo is anemic and has petechiae and ecchymoses scattered over her upper trunk, especially in her arms. What is this patient experiencing?
    Bone marrow suppression
  73. What statement would indicate a pt understands discharge teaching concerning leucopenia?
    �I should avoid close contact with people who might give me an infection.�
  74. What test will be used to make a definite diagnosis of a benign or malignant tumor of the breast?
    Biopsy
  75. What risk factor is considered significant in the cause of several type of cancer?
    Smoking
  76. What is a biologic modifier that is used prophylactically for patients at risk for neutropenia?
    Colony stimulating factor (CSF)
  77. What is the most preventable cause of death from lung cancer?
    Cessation of smoking
  78. What complication is the result of aggressive chemo that causes a destruction of a large number of rapidly dividing malignant cells?
    Tumor lysis syndrome
  79. What would the nurse do for the pt who has a vaginal radiation implant in place?
    Monitor vital signs every 4 hours and report temp greater than 100
  80. What would be the nurse�s primary concern for a pt with oat cell carcinoma of the lung whose WBC is 1.5?
    Prevention of infection
  81. What are the characteristics of cachexia?
    Poor health, malnutrition, and wasting
  82. What is a priority nursing intervention for a pt with multiple myeloma?
    Encouraging fluids
  83. What lab value would the nurse specifically note as a result of the massive cell destruction that occurs with chemo?
    Increased uric acid level
  84. What is the most common side effect of the pt who is receiving radiation to the neck for cancer of the larynx?
    Sore throat
  85. When caring for a client with an internal radiation implant, the nurse should observe what principle?
    Pregnant women are not allowed into the client�s room
  86. While giving care to a pt with an internal cervical radiation implant, how does the nurse handle the implant she found in the bed?
    Pick up the implant with long-handled forceps and place into a lead container
  87. What is included in the plan of care for a pt who is experiencing hematological toxicity as a result of chemo?
    Restrict fresh fruits and veggies in the diet
  88. What is the priority to monitor in a pt who is receiving chemo with a platelet count of 10,000?
    Level of consciousness
  89. What findings would the nurse expect to document in the pt with suspected Hodgkins?
    Enlarged lymph nodes
  90. What symptom is typical of ovarian cancer?
    Abdominal distention
  91. What findings would indicate that the pt is experiencing a complication relate to a radical masectomy?
    Arm edema on the operative side
  92. What discharge instructions should the nurse include for the pt after a prostatectomy?
    Avoid lifting objects heaver than 20 lbs for 6 weeks
  93. What is a common symptom of bladder cancer?
    Hematuria
  94. What would the nurse expect to note on the stoma of a pt after a ureterostomy?
    A red and moist stome
  95. Which nursing intervention would assist with preventing lymphedema after a radical masectomy?
    Elevating the affected arm on a pillow above heart level
  96. What intervention is a priority in the plan of care for a pt who develops thrombocytopenia?
    Monitor the client for bleeding
  97. What is a characteristic of multiple myeloma?
    Malignant proliferation of plasma cells and tumors within the bone
  98. What would the nurse expect to note in the pt diagnosed with multiple myeloma?
    Increased calcium level
  99. What is the process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells?
    carcinogenesis
  100. What is a reduction in the number of circulating white blood cells due to depression of the bone marrow?
    Leukopenia
  101. What is the term for uncontrolled or abnormal growth of cells?
    neoplasm
  102. What is a reduction in the number of circulating platelets due to the suppression of the bone marrow?
    thrombocytopenia
  103. What test, when elevated, can indicate that cancer has metastisised to the bone or liver?
    Alkaline Phosphatase
  104. What lab value is increased for the pt with thyroid cancer?
    serum calcitonin
  105. What is found in increased amounts in the pt with colorectal cancer?
    CEA
  106. What can a chemo pt do to enhance the flavor of their food?
    onion and ham will improve veggies; lemon juice can mask taste alterations
  107. What factors have been shown to have an impact on the determination of how well a pt will cope with a diagnosis of cancer?
    Age at the time of diagnosis; availability of significant others; presence of symptoms
  108. How often should women in their twenties have a medical examination of their skin?
    every 2 years
  109. What is the normal range for an INR?
    2-3
  110. What is the normal lab value for PTT?
    30-45
  111. What are the normal lab values for WBC?
    5,000 - 10,000
  112. What are the normal lab values for platelets?
    150,000 - 400,000
  113. What is the normal lab value for RBCs?
    4.2-6.2
  114. What are the normal lab values for creatinine?
    0.2-0.9
  115. What are the normal lab values for potassium?
    3.5-5.0
  116. What are the normal lab values for calcium?
    8.5-10.5

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