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What was the Spanish crown's policy on conquistadors?
They could do whatever they wanted in terms of finding new land and stuff but the king got 1/5th of the profit. They then learned that the conquistadors were killing and being rude to natives especially on the Caribbean.
Who discovered Florida? How did he name it? When did he find it?
- Juan Ponce de Leon
- It was spring, and in Spanish Florida means flowered.
Who reported on the horrors that native people were facing to the Spanish government? What did Spain do?
- Las Casas
- They sent out representatives (viceroys) to start viceroyalties.
Name the viceroyalties in order.
- Viceroyalty of New Spain
- Viceroyalty of Peru
- Viceroyalty of New Granada
- Viceroyalty of Rio Plate (Rio de la Plata)
What effects did the Spanish viceroyalties have?
There were fewer native deaths, but in the Caribbean people still died of overwork, disease, and suicide.
Define these terms:
- Peninsulares:Spanish born people who came to the colonies
- Criollos (Crioles): People with Spanish parents or grandparents
- Mestizos: Descendents of Natives and Spaniards
- Mulattos: Mixtures of black and white people
By whom were the Latin Americans influenced?
Thomas Jefferson, Philosophes, and the Enlightenment philosophers
On St. Domingue (on Hispaniola, near St. Domingo), how were the Mulattos and slaves treated?
They could have land but could not hold professions (doctor, lawyer, etc.). The slaves were treated poorly and were forced to work in the sugar industry. The Rights of Man and Citizen did not apply to them, even though it was a French colony.
When the slaves on St. Domingue uprose (it was really nasty), the Mulattos joined. Who lead them?
Pierre Toussaint L'Overture
When did Pierre Toussaint L'Overture throw the French off of St. Domingue? What did Napoleon do afterward?
- Napoleon sent over troops to take the land back but they were unable to do so because of yellow fever and loss of men in battle. When he lost this, he became willing to sell the Louisiana Territory.
The Criollos of the Spanish colonies did not obey Joseph Bonaparte because he was not the legitimate heir to the throne. They decided to self govern. What happened when Ferdinand came back into power in Spain?
His rule was so harsh that everybody wanted independence (they eventually got it).
Why was Spain not worried about losing Argentina?
It was not very important to them so the proclamation of independence was of little concern to Spain.
In the Reconquest of 1814, Spain tried to take control of its lost colonies but the patriots used guerilla warfare. At one point, the Chileans went to Argentina and fought the Battle of Maipu against Spain. What was the outcome? What famous figure fought in this battle with Chile?
- Chile was independent, Argentina was protected to the East, the "cone" of South America was protected.
- Bernardo O'Higgins
When was Chile's independence? *STARDATE*
After Chile got this, what did they do with Argentina?
- They liberated Peru with the help of Jose de San Martin
Who did Chile get from the British Navy to help start their own?
Did Simon Bolivar agree with Napoleon's ideas? What nations did he liberate?
- Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador
Where did Bolivar and San Martin meet? What happened?
Bolivar gave San Martin control of his army and he stepped down. San Martin then liberated Bolivia in the battle of Ayacucho.
What did Miguel Hidalgo do?
He started the Mexican Revolution with the Cry of Dolores on Sep. 16 1810. He then formed a peasant army and was killed.
Who took up the fight for Mexico after Miguel Hidalgo?
Jose Maria Morales who struggled but eventually won through guerilla warfare.
Who owned the following areas of Italy?
Venetia and Lombardy
Modence, Parma, Tuscany
Kingdom of Two Sicilies
- Venetia and Lombardy: Austria
- Modence, Parma, Tuscany: Austrian princes
- Piedmont, Sardinia: House of Savoy
- Papal States:Pope
- Kingdom of Two Sicilies: Bourbon rulers
When did Venezuela and Colombia gain their independence?
What is the thesis of Simon Bolivar's essay? (Will's version--not Boles') Give some specific contentions to back up the thesis.
Thesis: The oppressed Venezuelan people would face issues when given their liberty because they were unsure of how to responsibly hold such power.
- -The U.S. had a successful democracy but that was rarity.
- -Rousseau said that "Liberty is a succulent morsel" but it could be abused easily.
- -Different government styles worked for different people and a republic (with many branches) would be best for Venezuela.
- -Venezuelans have known nothing other than oppression
- -Democracies were weak and could be abused
Who was Mazzini? What did he do?
He was an Italian liberal republican who wanted to have a republic and he formed an Italian national identity with writers, musicians (Verdi's operas are Mrs. Johnston's favorites) and prominent politicians.
What group did Mazzini form? What people formed this group? What was the movement for unity called?
- Young Italy
- Young middle class Italians
- Risorgimento (he wanted total dedication from people)
How did Napoleon III become emperor?
He was Napoleon's nephew and when the 2nd republic of France came about he became Emperor.
Why were French liberals mad at Napoleon III? What did he do to appease them?
- They didn't like his title of Emperor.
- He said he would unify Italy to get their support back. It was also because of his heritage (sortof) and his modern dictator style (he listened to the people's desires).
Explain the Orsini attempt.
An Italian nationalist threw a bomb at Napoleon III, but missed. Napoleon III was mad and was less willing to unify Italy.
Why did Mazzini want a unitary Republic and not a federation?
It was more likely to keep its strength and not split in a time when other nations kept growing. It would have one religion, legislature, country, etc.
What style of politics did Cavour practice? Explain it.
- It said that you do whatever you need to get what you want.
Who is considered to be largely responsible for the black plague?
Why did Cavour join in the Crimean war with Britain, France, and the Ottoman empire against Russia?
He wanted his empire, Piedmont Sardinia, to be well-recognized among the other, larger countries.
Where did Napoleon and Cavour meet in secret?
Cavour was the prime minister of _______________.
What did the Treaty of Plombieres say?
France will help Piedmont Sardinia if Austria attacks.
In what two major battles did Austria lose against Piedmont and France?
Magenta and Solferino
When French Catholics were worried about the Papal States being lost? What happened?
Napoleon III sent over troops, but he eventual.ly withdrew and signed a treaty with Austria called Via Franca.
What were the terms of Via Franca?
Lombardy went to Piedmont, Venetia remained with Austria, and the Pope presided over the federal union.
In what year did Mazzini's resurface and incite uprisings in Italy? (star date)
In 1860, what four nations joined Piedmont Sardinia (under Cavour's control)? What did they have to do to join? Where did they meet?
- Tuscany, Parma, Modena, Romagna
- The held a plebiscite (vote)
- They met in Turin (capital of Piedmont)
What two cities did Garibaldi take (in Italy)?
Sicily and Naples
Why did Germany set up a trade-specific area? What was it called?
- They lagged behind in industrialization because they had really high import and export taxes. Doing business was a hassle.
- It was called Zolllverein
King Wilhelm I of Germany wanted to strengthen his army. What was Parliament's response?
Explain Bismark's background and what he wanted to do in Germany?
- He was from the Junker class (high in society).
- He did not want to unite all German territories, he just wanted to strengthen Prussia (not Austria).
Why did Bismark fight the Danish War against Denmark?
The king of Denmark owned Schleswig and Holstein and he was about to bring them into his kingdom. Bismark wanted to unite his kingdom in finding a common enemy so they went to war.
What were the results of the Danish war? (who got what)
- Austria got Holstein
- Prussia got Schleswig
When Bismark wanted Austria to attack Prussia, what did he do?
He befriended France, Russia, and Piedmont. Then he started the Austro-Prussian war (but the Austrians attacked first)
Who was the Austrian emperor during the Austro-Prussian war? What was a major defeat for the Austrians? What were the results?
- Franz Joseph
- Austria was excluded from German affairs and Prussia got all of the territory in that one area that she showed us... (idk where)
When Wilhelm expressed his desire to conquer Austria, what did Bismark do?
He allied with Wilhelm's son and they convinced him not to.
When the South territories of Germany didn't want to join with Prussia, what did they do?
They got France mad because the Spanish were looking for a new king and Hohenzollen was selected by Spain to be the ruler. France didn't like this because Hohenzollen was Wilhelm's son and they didn't want Hohenzollens on both sides of them. So Wilhelm told his son not to be ruler of Spain. But later, when Willy was on vacation, he saw the French Ambassador who wanted a statement that said that Hohenzollen would not be the Spanish king and Willy was like "no". So he sent the Ems telegram to Bismark who altered it and released it to the press. The French got mad at the Germans and the Germans got mad at the French, but the French attacked first starting the Franco-Prussian war.
Explain some major events of and the outcome of the Franco-Prussian war.
Napoleon III's forces lost at Sedan and he was abdicated. Then the French set up a Paris Commune and still lost. Then the Germans had a ceremony to declare their unity (in 1871) in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles. They also charged the French reparations (money for wars).