Articulation_disorders.txt

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ggarriott
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77841
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Articulation_disorders.txt
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2011-04-06 16:09:21
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Articulation Disorders Test
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Articulation Disorders Test 3
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  1. Stimuli designed to elicit a response. (Auditory, Visual, Kinesthetic)
    Antecedent events
  2. Stimuli presented following a response.
    Consequent Events
  3. Structured opportunity to produce the target. (Ex. rabbit, ring)
    Discrete trial
  4. Stimuli arranged to elicit the behavior.
    (/b/sound... bring toys/objects with the target in their name.)
    Evoked Trial
  5. Clinician gives a model.
    (visual cueing etc.)
    Modeled trials
  6. Occurs when the rate of behvior increases above the baseline rate
    Postitive reinforcement
  7. Distasteful stimulus is removed contingent upon a desired response
    (desired behavior increases)
    Negative reinforcement (not the same as "punishment")
  8. A stimulus that does not have to be learned so it is reinforcing in the absence of learning (can be food, toys, stamps, etc)
    Primary reinforcer
  9. A stimulus paired with a primary reinforcer that eventually takes on the properties of the primary reinforcer.
    (Ex. verbal praise....nice work
    I heard that nice /s/ sound)
    Secondary reinforcer
  10. Based on previous experience.
    Conditioned Generalized reinforcers
  11. What type of Informative Feedback must you be specific... tell them what they did that was so great?
    Verbal
  12. What type of Informative Feedback might clinician use a chart or graph?
    Nonverbal
  13. What type of Informative Feedback uses a variety of reinforcers?
    Multiple Reinforcement Contingencies
  14. What type of Informative Feedback may use computer programs..... used often in a school setting?
    Mechanical feedback
  15. Clearly defined behavior that will be rewarded... the client must know what they must do to get the reward. (how our world works)
    TOKEN ECONOMY

    • 1. Present reward immediately following the behavior
    • 2. Agreement concerning how the tokens can be exchanged for prizes.
    • 3. Reinforcement Menu--indicates how many tokens it takes to buy each prize.
  16. Indicates how many tokens it takes to buy each prize.
    Reinforcement Menu
  17. Most effective reinforcement used where if the client knows a correct response has been given, that will be enough to increase behavior rates.
    Self reinforcement
  18. What are the Principles for Self Reinforcement?
    1. Clients can't take the reward until after the behavior is demonstrated.

    2. Client has control over the rewards.

    3. Standards are set before the rewards can be given.
  19. What type of reinforcer reinforces all correct responses?
    Continuous
  20. What type of reinforcer only reinforces some of the responses given?
    Intermittent
  21. Number of responses a client must produce within schedules of reinforcement.
    Ratio Schedule
  22. Amount of time considered within the schedules of reinforcement.
    Interval
  23. What ratio in schedules of reinforcement always stays the same (one response=1 reinforcement)?
    Fixed Ratio
  24. What ratio in schedules of reinforcement requires 3 responses before each reinforcement? (3:1)
    Variable Ratio
  25. For decreasing behavior rates, __________are often resistant to extinction due to the nueral pathways that have already been made so would be considered _________ ________ behaviors.
    • Misarticulations
    • Inappropriate Communication Behaviors
  26. In Decreasing Behavior Rates, what behaviors interrupt the treatment process?
    Interfering behaviors
  27. In Decreasing Behavior Rates, __________ of targeted behavior may occur; not because of client's inability to perform but in their desire to do so. (piano lesson, exercise program)
    Extinction

    Make sure that what we are doing is resistant to extinction
  28. In Decreasing Behavior Rates, ________ is defined in terms of response rate, not generally used now.
    Punishment
  29. In Decreasing Behavior Rates, this term describes when the client is unable to reach the reward (goal is too unattainable for client or too much effort.
    Ratio-Strain

    Make them attainable/reachable quickly
  30. In Decreasing Behavior Rates, this tx method uses a earn and lose or lose only method. Patient must pay for inappropriate behaviors (used when client has been in treatment awhile and they really can do it but their effort is too low... take away tokens
    Response-Cost
  31. Any period of non-reinforcement is considered a _________.
    Time-Out
  32. Following an undesirable behavior, all activity stops. (ex. no talking for 5 seconds)
    Non-exclusion time out
  33. Tell the client what they need to do differently.
    Corrective Feedback

    • Verbal
    • Nonverbal
    • Mechanical
  34. Need to be sure the stimulus is a reinforcer.
    Stimulus Withdrawl
  35. Making adjustment during a session because something isn't working or has client mastered the skill and is ready to move on?
    Leveling
  36. Needs to be measureable (have a beginning and an end.
    Instructional Objectives

    Include these types of statements.pg. 465 in text
  37. What you want a client to do before thier dismissal.
    Terminal Objectives
  38. For a specific period of time (short rage)- semester goals.
    Short Term Objectives
  39. For that week's session(s)
    Weekly Objectives
  40. Approach that typically focuses on one or two sounds at a time.
    Traditional Approach
  41. Factors for Traditional Approach
    • - Chronological Age
    • - Frequency of occurrence
    • - Stimulability
    • - Extent to which errors are produced
    • - Severity of error

    • - Least=Distortion
    • - Middle = substitution
    • - Most= Omission
  42. Traditional Approach
    5 stages
    Sensory perceptual training - client isn't required to produce the sound.

    production training

    Stabilization

    Transfer and carryover

    Maintenance
  43. A client isn't required to produce the sound, this is in what stage in the Traditional Approach?
    Sensory perceptual training
  44. Describe sight, sound feel of phoneme.
    Identification
  45. Does this word contain your sound?
    Isolation
  46. Bombardment, vary loudness and duration: goal is to increase sensitivity.
    Stimulation
  47. Focus on listening, may include error detection and correction.
    Discrimination
  48. Stress pattern of movement from one to the other.
    Motokinesthetic
  49. Designed to develop the ability to produce the sound quickly and easily.
    Stabilization

    • Productions are "stabilized" at each level before moving on to the next
    • **Be sure steps are very small**
  50. Words are made up of sound sequences.
    Reconfiguration
  51. Client says and writes the sound: 1 syllable words, multisyllable words, whole words.
    Simultaneous Talking and Writing
  52. Client prolongs the sound, then on a signal from the clinician produced the rest.
    Signaling techniques
  53. The ablility to use the new sound in conversation.
    Carryover
  54. ****Carry Over Activities***

    Homework (usually asking them to do things that they can already do)
    Speech Assignments
  55. ****Carry Over Activities***

    Have someone else check the child's speech.
    Self and peer monitoring
  56. ****Carry Over Activities***

    Brief periods of time when we're monitoring their speech. (practice in other settings)

    Ex. show and tell or somone monitor adult during coffee break.
    Nucleus Situations

    Ex. show and tell or somone monitor adult during coffee break.
  57. ****Carry Over Activities***

    Aware of their own speech production
    Proprioceptive Awareness
  58. ****Carry Over Activities***

    Use the sound in various types of speaking
    Use the sound in various types of speaking

    This was the 5th Activity listed under carryover activities. Really not a definition, just a statement. So there was no answer.
  59. Retention of a learned skill after the therapy is complete (mastery of skill should be retained)
    Maintenance

    - client seen less freq. to start(2x's a week to once a week)

    - Ready for dismissal
  60. Three Objectives of Sensory Motor Approach.
    1. Heighten responsiveness to patterns of speech movements.

    2. Reinforce correct production of the error sound.

    3. Facilitate correct production in systematically varied contexts.
  61. Sample articulation in a variety of setting over several days.
    Baseline

    Baseline data describes the current state of the behavior

    Behavior must be measureable, have a difinite beginning and end (this is one of the most important but often most difficult in writing goals.) Jimmy will improve his speech is "No Bueno"!!
  62. Positive Reinforcement
    -Immediately follows a response

    -There are many types of reinforcers

    -Satisfies a need of the organism-need of approval

    -Increases the probability of a response recurring.
  63. Increasing Behavior Rate by
    • Positive Reinforcement
    • Negative reinforcement
  64. Any skill that's taught to a client, patient, or student (anything that you attempt to teach)
    Target Behavior
  65. Target Behavior

    Select behaviors that....
    1. Important to change (age appropriate?, developmentally appropriate ?, will it make a difference in the clients social interaction?)

    2 May be reinforced in other settings

    3. Expand communication skills

    4. Linguistically and culturally appropriate.
  66. 3 different Baseline Trials?
    • Discrete Trial
    • Evoked Trial
    • Modeled Trial
    • *may use other stimulus methods(visual, cueing,etc)**
  67. Informative Feedback can be ________, __________, _________, and ________.
    Verbal, nonverbal, multiple reinforcement contingencies, and mechanical feedback.
  68. Conditions for effective Reinforcement include:
    - State of need exists

    - Experimenter controls the presentation of the stimulus

    - Reinforcer is positive only if the behavior increases.

    - Choose reinforcers that will not wear out or have no undesirable side effects.
  69. Remember (in reinforcement) to:
    - Don't assume a consequence is a reinforcer.

    - Present reinforcer immediately after behavior

    - dont use monotonous delivery

    - Be sure the client knows why the reinforcer is being given

    - Eye contact is important

    - Consistency!!
  70. Time out is a period of ________- ______________.
    Non-Reinforcement
  71. As a clinician, ask yourself:
    - Is this activity to difficult?

    -Were my instructions clear?

    - Was the reinforcement appropriate? Did they like it, did it work?

    - Were sessions too structured to meet the client's needs?

    - Did I target the appropriate target behaviors?
  72. Phases: (5) of them they are?
    • Establishment Phase
    • Level A
    • Level B
    • Level C
  73. Produce each consonant sound in response to a grapheme or phonetic symbol.
    • Establishment Phase
    • - sound production sheet (SPS)
  74. Visual stimulus- most difficult Phase
    • Level A
    • Children under 5 skip
  75. Auditory Visual Stimulus - Phase
    Level B
  76. Stimulus (maximal cueing)- Easiest phase
    • Level C
    • *start at level C and move toward level A
    • Holding procedure
  77. Transfer
    • 1. May work on 5 or more sounds during a session
    • 2. Syllable-use only if the client fails a word probe.. so usually don't use syllables.
    • 3. At word level, use a variety of words with a variety of vowels- when we work on articulation we train a lot of nouns because we can picture them in our head
    • 4. Phrases or sentences- self monitoring begins
    • 5. Reading or Story passages (WWA)-whole word accuracy
    • 6. Conversation level
  78. 90% whole word accuracy in various speaking situations without any external support.
    May monitor for about 3 months
    May lose about 5%
    Maintenance Level
  79. Maintenance options
    Return Visits, Clinician visits class, telephone conversations, reports and others
  80. Paired Stimuli Approach
    • - designed for children with few errors or sound distortions
    • - operant principles- only one sound is trained at a time
    • - uses a key word to train production
    • - 4 keywords (keywords are words in which the client says correctly), 2 initial, and 2 final
    • - Key Word: target occurs only once, target produced correctly 9 of 10 times. (ex. Word List)
    • - training words: 10 initial, 10 final, unless errors occurs in only one position.
    • -Use of a picture board P.419
    • - alternate between a key word and a training word=training string
    • -
  81. Paired Stimuli Approach: Word Level
    • - first train the initial position, then final
    • - Third word (target in initial position), produce both key and training words with a breif pause=response unit
    • - Fourth word(target in final postition), produce both key and training word with a brief pause=response unit
    • -Probe for generalization to conversational speech.
  82. Sentence Level:
    • - Ask a question to elicit the key word and a training word in a sentence.
    • - Reinforcement varies
    • - ask a question to elicit the second and third key words(alternate the key word and the training words)
    • - Ask a question to elicit the first and fourth training words.
  83. Conversation Level:
    • - Asks open ended questions
    • - Stop if the child uses the sound correctly in 4 words or there are errors.
    • - Increase level of the #of productions needed for reinforcement. (maybe start with 7, then 10, 13, 15)
    • - Probe after each level
    • -
  84. A key word and a training word is called a ___________.
    Training String
  85. In the Paired Stimuli Approach, a __________ __________ is a word that the client can produce correctly __ out of __ times?
    Key word, 9 out of 10
  86. Key Words (Paired Stimuli Approach)
    • - Target sound occurs only once(for this example the target sounds is./r/
    • - the child says the sound correctly 9 of 10 times.
    • -2 with the sound in the initial position:(rat, rope)
    • -2 with the sound in the final position:(car, bear)
  87. Training Words
    • - the target sound is misarticulated 2 of 3 times.
    • - Target sound occurs only once
    • - 10 initial: rake, rot, room, rabbit, rice, read, roll, rocks, rattle, rip
    • - 10 final; ear, four, door, pour, hair, star, deer, snore, chair, jar
  88. The successful pairing of the key word with each of the ten training words is
    Training String
  89. T or F When making goals for clients you should set goals you want them to do, not what you want them to stop doing?
    True
  90. What are the different levels in treatment?
    • 1.Word Level
    • 2.Sentence Level
    • 3.Conversation Level

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