Intro to Human Anatomy and Physiology; chapter 1
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to hang something: appendicular-- pertaining to the upper lims and the lower limbs
heart: pericardium-- membrane that surrounds the heart.
brain: cerebrum-- largest part of the brain
helmet: cranial-- pertaining to the part of the skull that surrounds the brain.
back: dorsal--position towards the back of the body.
same: homeostasis-- maintenance of a stable internal environment
the study of : physiology-- study of body functions.
change: metabolism--chemical changes that occur within the body.
nose: nasal--pertaining to the nose
circle: orbital-- pertaining to the portion of the skull that encircles the eye.
wall: parietal membrane-- membrane that lines the wall of a cavity.
basin: pelvic cavity -- basin shaped cavity enclosed by the pelvic bones.
around: pericardial membrane-- membrane that surrounds the heart.
rib: pleural membrane--membrane that encloses the lungs within the rib cage.
standing still: homeostasis-- maintenance of a stable internal environment.
above: superior-- referring to a body part located above another.
cutting: anatomy-- study of structure, which often involves cutting or removing body parts.
These two major areas of medical science address how the body maintains life.
Anatomy & Physiology.
_______ examines the structures, or morphology, of body parts--their forms and organization.
greek for "Relationship to nature".
_________ considers the functions of body parts--what they do and how they do it.
________ rely more on examination of the body.
__________ rely more on experimentation on the body.
It is difficult to separate anatomy and physiology because _______ ________ ___ ______ ___ ________ .
anatomical structures make possible their functions.
Parts form a well organized unit - the ______ _______.
The arrangement of _____ and ______ in the hand makes grasping possible.
bones , muscles
The heart's powerful _____ ______ contract and propell _____ out of the chambers and into blood ______.
- muscular walls,
The heart _____ keep blood moving in the proper direction.
The _____ of the mouth enables it to receive food.
_____ shapes enable _____ to break solid foods into peices.
The ________ ______ and ______ are constructed in a way that helps mix food particles with salive and prepare them for swallowing.
Researchers have recently used imaging technologies to identify a previously unrecognized part of the brain, the _______ ________, which enables people to locate sounds in space.
Many investigation begin with investigations at the ________ or ______ level.
By investigating at the molecular or cellular levels, reseachers have discovered that certain cells in the ____ _________ bear the same taste receptor proteins found on the tongue. At both locations the receptors detect the molecules that impart ________.
- small intestine,
The discovery of the planum temporale is ____________; the discovery of sweet receptors in the intestines is ____________.
Using "___ _______ ________" researchers have discovered that after a spinal cord injury the damaged tissue releases a flood of _______ previously associated only with skin wounds. Finding these ______ in the aftermath of spinal cord injury suggests new ____ _______.
- gene expression profiling,
- drug targets
The examination of genes that function in particular cell types under particular conditions is called " ___ _______ ________.
gene expression profiling
All materials, including those that comprise the human body, are composed of ________.
Chemicals consist of tiny particles called ____.
Atoms are composed of _________ ________.
Atoms can join to form larger ________.
Small molecules may combine to form ______________.
In all organisms the basic structure and function is a _____.
Although individual cells vary in shapes and sizes, all of them share certain ____________.
Cells of complex organisms such as humans, contain structures called ___________ that carry on specific activities.
Organelles are composed of assemblies of large molecules, including _______, ___________, _______, and ________ _____.
- nucleic acid
Most human cells contain a complete set of _______ ___________, yet use only a subset of them, allowing cells to _________.
- genetic instructions,
____________ cells assemble into layers or masses that have specific _______. Such a group of cells forms a _______ .
Groups of different _______ form organs--complex structures with specialized functions-- and groups of organs that function closely together comprise _______ _______ .
Interacting organ systems make up an _________.
A body part can be described at different levels. The heart, for example, consists of _______, ___, and ________ ______. These tissues, in turn, are constructed of cells, which contain _________, and all structures of life ulitmately contain _________.
- nervous tissue,
Levels of organization:
Subatomic particles-- _______, _______, _______.
Atom-- _________ atom, _______ atom.
Molecule - _________ molecule, _______ molecule.
Macromolecule - ________ molecule, ___ molecule.
Organelle- ___________, _____ ________, _____.
Cell- ______ cell, _____ cell.
Tissue- _____ _______ __________, ______ _________ _______.
- electrons, protons, neutrons.
- hydrogen atom, lithium atom
- water molecule, glucose molecule
- protein molecule, DNA molecule
- mitochondrion, golgi aparatus, nucleus
- muscle cell, nerve cell
- simple squamous epithelium, loose connective tissue
_______ is composed of atoms , which are composed of ________ _________.
- subatomic particles
_____ join to form molecules.
__________ consist of aggregates of interacting large molecules.
_____ , composed of organelles, are the basic units of structure and ________ of the body.
Cells are organized into layers or masses called ______.
________ form organ systems.
Organ systems constitute the _________.
Human life depends upon the following environmental factors, _____, ____, ______, ____, and ________.
______ is the most abundant substance in the body.
_______ is required for a variety of metabolic processes, and it provides the ______________ in which most of them take place .
_______ transports substances in organisms and is important in regulating body temperatures.
____ refers to substances that provide organisms necessary chemicals (________) in addition to water.
_______ supply energy and raw materials for building new living matter.
________ is a gas that makes up about one-fifth of the air. It is used to release ______ from nutrients. The ______ in turn is used to drive ________ processes.
_____ is a form of energy present in our environment.
Heat is a product of ________ reactions.It partly controls the rate at which these reactions occur.
Generally, the more heat, the more rapidly ________ ________ take place.
___________ is a measure of the amount of heat present.
Characteristics of life:
_______ is an application of force on an object or substance.
The force acting on the outside of a land organism due to the weight of air above it is called _____________ _________. In humans this pressure plays an important role in breathing.
Organisms living under the water are subjected to __________ pressure--- a pressure a ______ exerts --- due to the weight of the water above them.
In complex animals, such as humans, heart action produces _____ _______ (another form of hydrostatic pressure), which keeps blood flowing through bood _______.
Although the human organism requires water, food, ________, pressure, and ____, these factors alone are not enough to ensure ________. Both the qualities and the quantities of such factors are also important.
The tedency to maintain a stable internal environment is called ____________.
If an organism is to survive the conditions within its body _____ must remain relatively stable.
Major organs of the integumentary system:
- sweat glands,
- sebaceous glands
Integumentary systems major functions:
_________ ____ __________, and
_______ _______ _______,
- protect tissues,
- regulate body temperature,
- support sensory receptors
Major organs of the skeletal system:
Major functions of the skeletal system:
_______ ____ _____,
Provide ___________ for _______,
produce _____ ____,
_____ ________ _____
- provide framework,
- protect soft tissues,
- provide attatchments for muscles,
- produce blood cells,
- store inorganic salts
Major organs of the muscular system:
Major functions of the muscular system:
______ ____ ____
- Cause movements,
- maintain posture,
- produce body heat
Major organs of the nervous system:
- spinal cord,
- sense organs
Major functions of the nervous system:
______ and _______ ________ ___________,
_______ ______ and ______.
- detect changes,
- receive and interperet sensory information,
- stimulate muscles and glands
Major organs of the endocrine system:
Glands that secrete hormones ---
- and thymus
Major functions of the endocrine system:
Conrol _______ _______ of ____ ________.
metabolic activities of body structures
Major organs of the cardiovascular system:
Major functions of the organs in the cardiovascular system:
Move _____ through _____ ______ and transport __________ throughout the body.
- blood vessels,
Major organs of the lymphatic system:
- lymphatic vessels,
- lymph nodes,
Major functions of the organs in the lymphatic system:
Return ______ _____ to the ______,
Carry certain ________ ____ ________,
______ the body against _______.
- tissue fluid,
- absorbed food molecules,
- defend the body against infection
Major organs of the digestive system:
_____ and ______ ________.
- salivary glands,
- small and large intestines
Major functions of the digestive system:
_______, ______ ______, and ______ food; _________ __________ ________.
- eliminate unabsorbed material.
Major organs of the respiratory system:
- Nasal cavity,
Major functions of the respiratory system:
______ and _____ of ___,
_______ of _____ between ___ and _____.
- Intake and output of air,
- exchange of gases between air and blood.
Major organs of the urinary system:
- urinary bladder,
Major function of the urinary system:
Remove ______ from _____, _______ _____ and ________ _______, _____ and _______ _____.
- wastes from blood,
- maintain water and electrolye balance,
- store and transport unrine
Major organs in the reproductive system:
Male-- _____, ____, ___________, _____ _______, ______ ______, ______ gland, ___________ glands,
- ductus deferentia,
- seminal vesicles,
- prostate gland,
- bulbourrethral glands,
Major organs of the reproductive systems:
Female-- ______, ______ _____, ______, ______, ________, _____.
- uterine tubes,
Major functions of the reproductive system:
_______ and _______ _____ ____,
_______ _____ ____ into _______ __________ _____.
Produce and maintain sperm cells,
transfer sperm cells into female reproductive tract.
Major functions of the reproductive system:
________ and ________ ___ ____, ______ _____ ____, _______ _________ of an ______ and function in ______ process.
-Produce and maintain egg cells,
-recieve sperm cells,
-support and development of an embryo and function in birth process.
Change in position of body or of a body part; motion of an internal organ.
Reaction to a change inside or outside of the body.
Increase in body size without change in shape.
Production of new organism and new cells.
Obtaining oxygen, removing carbon dioxide, and releasing energy from foods (some forms of life do not use oxygen in respiration).
Breakdown of food substances into simpler formsthat can be absorbed and used.
Passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids.
Movement of substances in body fluids
Changing of absorbed substances into different chemical forms.
Removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions
An ______ is an organism consisting of a single, but complex, cell.
Most of the earths residents are _________, or _______ celled.
The most ancient and abundant unicellular organisms are the _________. Their cells do not have _________-_____ __________.
- membrane bound organelles
Some _________ _________ have organelles as complex as our own. This is the case for the amoeba.
The amoeba survives and reproduces as long as its lake or pond environment is of a tolerable __________ and ___________, and the amoeba can obtain ___.
In contrast to the amoeba, humans are composed of __ to ___ _______ cells in their own environment-- our bodies.
50 to 100 trillion
Our cells, as part of organs and organ systems , interact in ways that keep this _______ _________ relatively constant despite an ever changing outside environment.
The internal environment consists of fluid that surrounds cells, called ____-______ _____.
The human organisms internal environment protetcs our cells (and us!) from external _____ that would kill ________ cells such as the amoeba.
Homeostasis, which is the maintained stable condition of the internal environment, is so important that it requires most of our _________ _______.
The body maintains homeostasis through a number of self-regulating control systems, or ____________ _________.
Homeostatic mechanisms share the following three components:
1. __________, which provide information about specific conditions (stimuli) in the internal environment. A ________ may be a molecule or a cell.
2.A _______ _______, which includes a ___ _____, tells what a particlur value should be (such as body temperature at 98.6 degrees F).
3. ________, such as muscles or glands, which elicit responses that alter conditions in the internal environment.
- 1. Receptors, receptor
- 2. control center, set point
A homeostatic mechanism works as follows:
If the _________ measure deviations from the ___ _____, _________ are activated that can return conditions toward normal. As conditions return toward normal, the deviations from the set point progressively lessens, and the effectors gradually shut down. Such as response is called a _______ _________ __________, both because the deviation from the set point is corrected (moves in the opposite or negative direction) and because the correction reduces the action of the effectors.This latter aspect is important because it prevents a correction form going to far.
- set point,
- negative feedback mechanism
A simple homoestatic mechanism regulates body temperature in humans. The "thermostat" is a temperature sensitive region in a control center of the brain called the ____________.
If the body temperature begins to drop, the ___________ senses this change and triggers heat ________ and heat __________ activities.
In a healthy person, the temperature 'set point' is at or near ____ degrees C (__._ degrees F)
When the hypothalmus is triggered to generate and conserve heat, the blood vessels in the skin will constrict, reducing ______ ____ and enabling deeper tissues to retain heat. At the same time small groups of _______ contract involuntarily, an action called ________ that produces heat, which helps warm the body.
- blood flow,
If a person becomes overheated, the hypothalmus triggers a series of changes that dissipate body heat. ______ _____ in the skin secrete watery _________. Water _______ from the surface carries away heat, cooling the skin. At the same time, blood vessels in the skin dilate. This allows the blood that carries heat from ______ ______ to reach the surface where more heat is lost to the outside.
- Sweat glands,
- deeper tissues
A homeostatic mechanisms regulates the blood pressure in the blood vessels (arteries) leading away from the heart. In this instance, pressure sensitive areas (sensory ________) within the walls of these vessels detect changes in blood pressure and signal a pressure control center in the brain. If the blood pressure is above the pressure ___ _____, brain signals the heart, causing its chanbers to contract more slowly and less forcefully. Because of decreased heart action, less blood enters the blood vessels and the _______ inside the vessels decreases.
- set point,
If blood pressure drops below the set point, the brain signals the heart to contract more _________ and with _______ force, increasing the pressure in the vessels.
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