Intro to Human Anatomy and Physiology; chapter 1

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Intro to Human Anatomy and Physiology; chapter 1
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2011-04-17 19:05:23
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Physiology anatomy biology nursing science
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Taken from the textbook "HOLE'S Human Anatomy and Physiology: Twelfth Edition
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  1. to hang something: appendicular-- pertaining to the upper lims and the lower limbs
    append-
  2. heart: pericardium-- membrane that surrounds the heart.
    cardi-
  3. brain: cerebrum-- largest part of the brain
    cerebr-
  4. helmet: cranial-- pertaining to the part of the skull that surrounds the brain.
    cran-
  5. back: dorsal--position towards the back of the body.
    dors-
  6. same: homeostasis-- maintenance of a stable internal environment
    homeo-
  7. the study of : physiology-- study of body functions.
    -logy
  8. change: metabolism--chemical changes that occur within the body.
    meta-
  9. nose: nasal--pertaining to the nose
    nas-
  10. circle: orbital-- pertaining to the portion of the skull that encircles the eye.
    orb-
  11. wall: parietal membrane-- membrane that lines the wall of a cavity.
    pariet-
  12. basin: pelvic cavity -- basin shaped cavity enclosed by the pelvic bones.
    pelv-
  13. around: pericardial membrane-- membrane that surrounds the heart.
    peri-
  14. rib: pleural membrane--membrane that encloses the lungs within the rib cage.
    pleur-
  15. standing still: homeostasis-- maintenance of a stable internal environment.
    -stasis
  16. above: superior-- referring to a body part located above another.
    super-
  17. cutting: anatomy-- study of structure, which often involves cutting or removing body parts.
    -tomy
  18. These two major areas of medical science address how the body maintains life.
    Anatomy & Physiology.
  19. _______ examines the structures, or morphology, of body parts--their forms and organization.
    Anatomy
  20. greek for "Relationship to nature".
    Physiology.
  21. _________ considers the functions of body parts--what they do and how they do it.
    Physiology.
  22. ________ rely more on examination of the body.
    Anatomists.
  23. __________ rely more on experimentation on the body.
    Physiologists.
  24. It is difficult to separate anatomy and physiology because _______ ________ ___ ______ ___ ________ .
    anatomical structures make possible their functions.
  25. Parts form a well organized unit - the ______ _______.
    human organism
  26. The arrangement of _____ and ______ in the hand makes grasping possible.
    bones , muscles
  27. The heart's powerful _____ ______ contract and propell _____ out of the chambers and into blood ______.
    • muscular walls,
    • blood,
    • vessels
  28. The heart _____ keep blood moving in the proper direction.
    valves
  29. The _____ of the mouth enables it to receive food.
    shape
  30. _____ shapes enable _____ to break solid foods into peices.
    • Tooth,
    • Teeth
  31. The ________ ______ and ______ are constructed in a way that helps mix food particles with salive and prepare them for swallowing.
    • muscular tongue,
    • cheeks
  32. Researchers have recently used imaging technologies to identify a previously unrecognized part of the brain, the _______ ________, which enables people to locate sounds in space.
    planum temporale
  33. Many investigation begin with investigations at the ________ or ______ level.
    • molecular,
    • cellular
  34. By investigating at the molecular or cellular levels, reseachers have discovered that certain cells in the ____ _________ bear the same taste receptor proteins found on the tongue. At both locations the receptors detect the molecules that impart ________.
    • small intestine,
    • sweetness
  35. The discovery of the planum temporale is ____________; the discovery of sweet receptors in the intestines is ____________.
    • anatomical,
    • physiological
  36. Using "___ _______ ________" researchers have discovered that after a spinal cord injury the damaged tissue releases a flood of _______ previously associated only with skin wounds. Finding these ______ in the aftermath of spinal cord injury suggests new ____ _______.
    • gene expression profiling,
    • proteins,
    • proteins,
    • drug targets
  37. The examination of genes that function in particular cell types under particular conditions is called " ___ _______ ________.
    gene expression profiling
  38. All materials, including those that comprise the human body, are composed of ________.
    chemicals
  39. Chemicals consist of tiny particles called ____.
    atoms
  40. Atoms are composed of _________ ________.
    subatomic particles.
  41. Atoms can join to form larger ________.
    molecules
  42. Small molecules may combine to form ______________.
    macromolecules
  43. In all organisms the basic structure and function is a _____.
    cell
  44. Although individual cells vary in shapes and sizes, all of them share certain ____________.
    characteristics
  45. Cells of complex organisms such as humans, contain structures called ___________ that carry on specific activities.
    organelles
  46. Organelles are composed of assemblies of large molecules, including _______, ___________, _______, and ________ _____.
    • proteins,
    • carbohydrates,
    • lipids,
    • nucleic acid
  47. Most human cells contain a complete set of _______ ___________, yet use only a subset of them, allowing cells to _________.
    • genetic instructions,
    • specialize
  48. ____________ cells assemble into layers or masses that have specific _______. Such a group of cells forms a _______ .
    • Specialized,
    • functions,
    • tissue
  49. Groups of different _______ form organs--complex structures with specialized functions-- and groups of organs that function closely together comprise _______ _______ .
    • tissues,
    • organ systems
  50. Interacting organ systems make up an _________.
    organism
  51. A body part can be described at different levels. The heart, for example, consists of _______, ___, and ________ ______. These tissues, in turn, are constructed of cells, which contain _________, and all structures of life ulitmately contain _________.
    • muscle,
    • fat,
    • nervous tissue,
    • organelles,
    • chemicals
  52. Levels of organization:
    Subatomic particles-- _______, _______, _______.
    Atom-- _________ atom, _______ atom.
    Molecule - _________ molecule, _______ molecule.
    Macromolecule - ________ molecule, ___ molecule.
    Organelle- ___________, _____ ________, _____.
    Cell- ______ cell, _____ cell.
    Tissue- _____ _______ __________, ______ _________ _______.
    • electrons, protons, neutrons.
    • hydrogen atom, lithium atom
    • water molecule, glucose molecule
    • protein molecule, DNA molecule
    • mitochondrion, golgi aparatus, nucleus
    • muscle cell, nerve cell
    • simple squamous epithelium, loose connective tissue
  53. _______ is composed of atoms , which are composed of ________ _________.
    • Matter,
    • subatomic particles
  54. _____ join to form molecules.
    Atoms
  55. __________ consist of aggregates of interacting large molecules.
    Organelles
  56. _____ , composed of organelles, are the basic units of structure and ________ of the body.
    • Cells,
    • function
  57. Cells are organized into layers or masses called ______.
    tissues
  58. ________ form organ systems.
    Organs
  59. Organ systems constitute the _________.
    organism
  60. Human life depends upon the following environmental factors, _____, ____, ______, ____, and ________.
    • water,
    • food,
    • oxygen,
    • heat,
    • pressure
  61. ______ is the most abundant substance in the body.
    Water
  62. _______ is required for a variety of metabolic processes, and it provides the ______________ in which most of them take place .
    • Water,
    • environment
  63. _______ transports substances in organisms and is important in regulating body temperatures.
    Water
  64. ____ refers to substances that provide organisms necessary chemicals (________) in addition to water.
    • Food,
    • nutrients
  65. _______ supply energy and raw materials for building new living matter.
    Nutrients
  66. ________ is a gas that makes up about one-fifth of the air. It is used to release ______ from nutrients. The ______ in turn is used to drive ________ processes.
    • Oxygen,
    • energy,
    • energy,
    • metabolic
  67. _____ is a form of energy present in our environment.
    Heat
  68. Heat is a product of ________ reactions.It partly controls the rate at which these reactions occur.
    metabolic
  69. Generally, the more heat, the more rapidly ________ ________ take place.
    chemical reactions
  70. ___________ is a measure of the amount of heat present.
    Temperature
  71. Characteristics of life:
    __________ __________
    __________ ____________
    _________ __________
    __________ ____________
    ___________ ___________
    ___________
    • Movement
    • Responsiveness
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
    • Respiration
    • Digestion
    • Absorption
    • Circulation
    • Assimilation
    • Excretion
    • Metabolism
  72. _______ is an application of force on an object or substance.
    Pressure.
  73. The force acting on the outside of a land organism due to the weight of air above it is called _____________ _________. In humans this pressure plays an important role in breathing.
    atmospheric pressure
  74. Organisms living under the water are subjected to __________ pressure--- a pressure a ______ exerts --- due to the weight of the water above them.
    • hydrostatic,
    • liquid
  75. In complex animals, such as humans, heart action produces _____ _______ (another form of hydrostatic pressure), which keeps blood flowing through bood _______.
    • blood pressure,
    • vessels
  76. Although the human organism requires water, food, ________, pressure, and ____, these factors alone are not enough to ensure ________. Both the qualities and the quantities of such factors are also important.
    • oxygen,
    • heat,
    • survival
  77. The tedency to maintain a stable internal environment is called ____________.
    homeostasis.
  78. If an organism is to survive the conditions within its body _____ must remain relatively stable.
    fluids
  79. Organ Systems:
    ___________
    ________
    ________
    ________
    ________
    _____________
    ________
    ________
    __________
    _______
    ___________
    • Integumentary,
    • Skeletal,
    • Muscular,
    • Nervous,
    • Endocrine,
    • Cardiovascular,
    • Lymphatic,
    • Digestive,
    • Respiratory,
    • Urinary,
    • Reproductive
  80. Major organs of the integumentary system:
    ____
    ____
    ____
    _____ _____
    _________ _____
    • hair,
    • nails,
    • skin,
    • sweat glands,
    • sebaceous glands
  81. Integumentary systems major functions:
    _______ ______,
    _________ ____ __________, and
    _______ _______ _______,
    • protect tissues,
    • regulate body temperature,
    • support sensory receptors
  82. Major organs of the skeletal system:
    _____
    _______
    _______
    • bones,
    • ligaments,
    • cartilage
  83. Major functions of the skeletal system:
    ______ ________,
    _______ ____ _____,
    Provide ___________ for _______,
    produce _____ ____,
    _____ ________ _____
    • provide framework,
    • protect soft tissues,
    • provide attatchments for muscles,
    • produce blood cells,
    • store inorganic salts
  84. Major organs of the muscular system:
    ________
    muscles
  85. Major functions of the muscular system:
    _____ ________,
    ________ ______,
    ______ ____ ____
    • Cause movements,
    • maintain posture,
    • produce body heat
  86. Major organs of the nervous system:
    _____,
    _____ ____,
    _____,
    ____ _____
    • brain,
    • spinal cord,
    • nerves,
    • sense organs
  87. Major functions of the nervous system:
    ______ ______,
    ______ and _______ ________ ___________,
    _______ ______ and ______.
    • detect changes,
    • receive and interperet sensory information,
    • stimulate muscles and glands
  88. Major organs of the endocrine system:
    Glands that secrete hormones ---
    _______ glands,
    _______ glands,
    __________ glands,
    ______ gands,
    _______,
    _______
    _____
    ______ gland,
    and _______.
    • pituitary,
    • thyroid,
    • parathyroid,
    • adrenal,
    • pancreas,
    • ovaries,
    • testes,
    • pineal,
    • and thymus
  89. Major functions of the endocrine system:
    Conrol _______ _______ of ____ ________.
    metabolic activities of body structures
  90. Major organs of the cardiovascular system:
    _____,
    _______,
    ________,
    ____
    • heart,
    • arteries,
    • capillaries,
    • veins
  91. Major functions of the organs in the cardiovascular system:
    Move _____ through _____ ______ and transport __________ throughout the body.
    • blood,
    • blood vessels,
    • substances
  92. Major organs of the lymphatic system:
    _______ ______,
    ______ _____,
    _____,
    _____.
    • lymphatic vessels,
    • lymph nodes,
    • thymus,
    • spleen
  93. Major functions of the organs in the lymphatic system:
    Return ______ _____ to the ______,
    Carry certain ________ ____ ________,
    ______ the body against _______.
    • tissue fluid,
    • blood,
    • absorbed food molecules,
    • defend the body against infection
  94. Major organs of the digestive system:
    _____,
    _______,
    _____,
    _______ glands,
    _______,
    _________,
    ______,
    _____,
    ________,
    ______,
    _____ and ______ ________.
    • Mouth,
    • tongue,
    • teeth,
    • salivary glands,
    • pharynx,
    • esophagus,
    • stomach,
    • liver,
    • gallbladder,
    • pancreas,
    • small and large intestines
  95. Major functions of the digestive system:
    _______, ______ ______, and ______ food; _________ __________ ________.
    • Recieve,
    • breakdown,
    • absorb,
    • eliminate unabsorbed material.
  96. Major organs of the respiratory system:
    _____ ______,
    _______,
    ______,
    ______,
    ______,
    _____.
    • Nasal cavity,
    • pharynx,
    • larynx,
    • trachea,
    • bronchi,
    • lungs
  97. Major functions of the respiratory system:
    ______ and _____ of ___,
    _______ of _____ between ___ and _____.
    • Intake and output of air,
    • exchange of gases between air and blood.
  98. Major organs of the urinary system:
    _______,
    _______,
    ______ ______,
    ______.
    • Kidneys,
    • ureters,
    • urinary bladder,
    • urethra
  99. Major function of the urinary system:
    Remove ______ from _____, _______ _____ and ________ _______, _____ and _______ _____.
    • wastes from blood,
    • maintain water and electrolye balance,
    • store and transport unrine
  100. Major organs in the reproductive system:
    Male-- _____, ____, ___________, _____ _______, ______ ______, ______ gland, ___________ glands,
    ______, ______.

    • Scrotum,
    • testes,
    • epididymides,
    • ductus deferentia,
    • seminal vesicles,
    • prostate gland,
    • bulbourrethral glands,
    • urethra,
    • penis
  101. Major organs of the reproductive systems:
    Female-- ______, ______ _____, ______, ______, ________, _____.
    • ovaries,
    • uterine tubes,
    • uterus,
    • vagina,
    • clitoris,
    • vulva
  102. Major functions of the reproductive system:
    Male--
    _______ and _______ _____ ____,
    _______ _____ ____ into _______ __________ _____.
    Produce and maintain sperm cells,

    transfer sperm cells into female reproductive tract.
  103. Major functions of the reproductive system:
    Female--
    ________ and ________ ___ ____, ______ _____ ____, _______ _________ of an ______ and function in ______ process.
    -Produce and maintain egg cells,

    -recieve sperm cells,

    -support and development of an embryo and function in birth process.
  104. Change in position of body or of a body part; motion of an internal organ.
    Movement
  105. Reaction to a change inside or outside of the body.
    Responsiveness
  106. Increase in body size without change in shape.
    Growth
  107. Production of new organism and new cells.
    Reproduction
  108. Obtaining oxygen, removing carbon dioxide, and releasing energy from foods (some forms of life do not use oxygen in respiration).
    Respiration
  109. Breakdown of food substances into simpler formsthat can be absorbed and used.
    Digestion
  110. Passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids.
    Absorption
  111. Movement of substances in body fluids
    Circulation
  112. Changing of absorbed substances into different chemical forms.
    Assimilation.
  113. Removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions
    Excretion
  114. An ______ is an organism consisting of a single, but complex, cell.
    amoeba
  115. Most of the earths residents are _________, or _______ celled.
    • unicellular,
    • single
  116. The most ancient and abundant unicellular organisms are the _________. Their cells do not have _________-_____ __________.
    • bacteria,
    • membrane bound organelles
  117. Some _________ _________ have organelles as complex as our own. This is the case for the amoeba.
    unicellular organisms
  118. The amoeba survives and reproduces as long as its lake or pond environment is of a tolerable __________ and ___________, and the amoeba can obtain ___.
    • temperature,
    • composition,
    • food
  119. In contrast to the amoeba, humans are composed of __ to ___ _______ cells in their own environment-- our bodies.
    50 to 100 trillion
  120. Our cells, as part of organs and organ systems , interact in ways that keep this _______ _________ relatively constant despite an ever changing outside environment.
    internal environment
  121. The internal environment consists of fluid that surrounds cells, called ____-______ _____.
    extra-cellular fluid
  122. The human organisms internal environment protetcs our cells (and us!) from external _____ that would kill ________ cells such as the amoeba.
    • changes,
    • isolated cells
  123. Homeostasis, which is the maintained stable condition of the internal environment, is so important that it requires most of our _________ _______.
    Metabolic energy
  124. The body maintains homeostasis through a number of self-regulating control systems, or ____________ _________.
    homeostatic mechanisms.
  125. Homeostatic mechanisms share the following three components:
    1. __________, which provide information about specific conditions (stimuli) in the internal environment. A ________ may be a molecule or a cell.
    2.A _______ _______, which includes a ___ _____, tells what a particlur value should be (such as body temperature at 98.6 degrees F).
    3. ________, such as muscles or glands, which elicit responses that alter conditions in the internal environment.
    • 1. Receptors, receptor
    • 2. control center, set point
    • 3.Effectors
  126. A homeostatic mechanism works as follows:
    If the _________ measure deviations from the ___ _____, _________ are activated that can return conditions toward normal. As conditions return toward normal, the deviations from the set point progressively lessens, and the effectors gradually shut down. Such as response is called a _______ _________ __________, both because the deviation from the set point is corrected (moves in the opposite or negative direction) and because the correction reduces the action of the effectors.This latter aspect is important because it prevents a correction form going to far.
    • receptors,
    • set point,
    • effectors,
    • negative feedback mechanism
  127. A simple homoestatic mechanism regulates body temperature in humans. The "thermostat" is a temperature sensitive region in a control center of the brain called the ____________.
    hypothalamus
  128. If the body temperature begins to drop, the ___________ senses this change and triggers heat ________ and heat __________ activities.
    • hypothalamus,
    • generating,
    • conserving
  129. In a healthy person, the temperature 'set point' is at or near ____ degrees C (__._ degrees F)
    • 37,
    • 98.6
  130. When the hypothalmus is triggered to generate and conserve heat, the blood vessels in the skin will constrict, reducing ______ ____ and enabling deeper tissues to retain heat. At the same time small groups of _______ contract involuntarily, an action called ________ that produces heat, which helps warm the body.
    • blood flow,
    • muscles,
    • shivering
  131. If a person becomes overheated, the hypothalmus triggers a series of changes that dissipate body heat. ______ _____ in the skin secrete watery _________. Water _______ from the surface carries away heat, cooling the skin. At the same time, blood vessels in the skin dilate. This allows the blood that carries heat from ______ ______ to reach the surface where more heat is lost to the outside.
    • Sweat glands,
    • persperation,
    • evaporation,
    • deeper tissues
  132. A homeostatic mechanisms regulates the blood pressure in the blood vessels (arteries) leading away from the heart. In this instance, pressure sensitive areas (sensory ________) within the walls of these vessels detect changes in blood pressure and signal a pressure control center in the brain. If the blood pressure is above the pressure ___ _____, brain signals the heart, causing its chanbers to contract more slowly and less forcefully. Because of decreased heart action, less blood enters the blood vessels and the _______ inside the vessels decreases.
    • receptors,
    • set point,
    • pressure
  133. If blood pressure drops below the set point, the brain signals the heart to contract more _________ and with _______ force, increasing the pressure in the vessels.
    • rapidly,
    • greater

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