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Pyschological and Social Evelopment
- Emotions - Building block of personality
What are the three types of crying?
- Basic Hunger
- Present at birth
- Form of communication
- Responding to crying is important to future development
What are two types of smiling?
- Reflexive: soon after birth
- Social: 2 months
What are the primary emotions?
- suprise, joy, anger, sadness, fear, digust
- cross cultural
What are the self conscious (secondary) emotions?
- empathy, jealousy, embarassment, pride
- not apparent, not universal
- require awarness of
What is social referencing?
check with mom to see if ok
What is the most stable characteristic?
What is temperament?
- An individual's behavioral style and characteristic way of responding emotionally
- Have different emotional styles
Who is Arnold Gesell and what did he do?
Conducted 1st study of infant temperament
New York Longitudinal Study: Research Procedures
- Longitudinal study
- 2-3 months through adulthood at regular intervals
- Intenseive interviews with mothers
- Ratings on 9 dimensions
- 9 dimensions formed the basis of a typology of four types of babies
What are the 4 types of babies temperament?
- Easy babies (40%)
- Difficult babies (10%)
- Slow-to-warm babies (15%)
- Average babies (35%)
New York Longitudinal Study: Conclusions
- Individual differences in temperament are evident shortly after birth and persist over the years dispite differences in parenting
- Temperament is the how (style) of behavior and is distinct from the (abilities) and why (motivation) of behavior.
New York Longitudinal Study: Implications
"Goodness of fit" between child's temperament and parental style predicts child outcome.
Who is Jerome Kagan and what did he do?
- Conducted study temperament of shyness
- Inhibition to unfamiliar (e.g., shyness with strangers)
- -very important features of temperament
- -20% negative to new stimuli
- -40% positive to new stimuli
- -shy as adult
- -not fault, learn to live with
What are the Biological Basis of Termperament?
- Kagan proposed that temperamental differences are related to inborn differences in brain structure and chemistry:
- He found inhibited children have:
- -Higher resting heart rates
- -Greater increase in pupil size in response to unfamilar
- -Higher levels of cortisol (released with stress)
Who is John Bowlby and what did he do?
- Conducted experiment on attachment with monkeys
- Abnormal monkeys
- Comfort more important
- Movement important to attachment
- Substitute doesn't work
Name the key events of Bowlby
- Early work with maladjusted children
- Film: A Two Year Old Goes to the Hospital
- Mary Ainsowrth
Who is Mary Ainsowrth and what did she do?
- Educated in Canada
- Research in England with Bowlby
- Development of Strange Situation
- Identification of Attachment Patterns
- Return to University of Virginia
- Award for Distinguished Contributions to Child Development
What is the strange situation and what does it do?
- Experiment that involves a parent and an infant with a stranger.
- Shows attachment patterns
What are the two kind of attachment patterns?
Define what is a secure attachment.
- An attachment that the infant use caregiver as secure base
- re-establish relationship
Define what is an insecure attachment.
- Avoidant - don't care, don't re-establish
- Resistant - inconsistent parenting
- Disorganized - don't know what to do
According to Erikson, what is attachment?
Basic Trust vs. Basic Mistrust
Social development in Toddlers
- Automony vs. Shame and Doubt
- Moral development and self control
- Shift - move on to becoming more automony
Sense to self
- Personal agency
- Separation and individuation (second year of life)
According to Erikson, what does Autonomy vs. Dshame and Doubt mean?
- Autonomy (sense that they can do things)
- Shame and doubt (feeling of insecurity about abilities resulting from excessive impatience and criticism)
- Implications for adjustment in adolescence
What does socialization mean?
- Right and wrong
- habits of society
Conscience includes both emotinal discomfort about wrongdoing and ability to refrain from doing it
What is Committed compliance?
Follow orders without reminders
What is Situational Compliance?
What is Receptive cooperation
- Suck up
- Beyond committed compliance
Who is Kochanska and what did see do?
Study of consciousness at Iowa