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the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as a member of that society
What are the limits of socialization?
- It cannot explain everything about a person's development and personality
- Biology is also very important
- Biology and social interactions make up who we are
What are the theories of socialization?
- "self" by Charles Horton Cooley
- I, me, other, generalized other by George Herbert Mead
What is Charles Horton Cooley's theory?
the "self" emerges from our ability to assume the point of view of others and imagine how others see us
George Herbert Mead's theory
- infants know only I
- learn "me" and "other" through social interaction
- develop a concept of "generalized other" to be able to apply norms and learned behaviors to new situations
- importance of imitation, play, and game to distinguish between self and other
Eric Erikson's theory
- identifies 8 stages and span a person's life time
- solves conflict in that stage to move on
What are the important socializing agents?
Families, school, peers, the media, and total institutions
What is a total institution?
an institution in which one is totally immersed that controls all the basics of day-to-day life
What is adult socialization?
- ways in which people are socialized as adults
- learn job responsibilities
the process by which one’s social values, beliefs, and norms are challenged and perhaps reformulated in response to spending a significant amount of time in a very different environment
What are the key concepts of Robert Merton's role theory?
- to describe social interaction
- status, roles, role strain, role conflict, status set, ascribed status, achieved status, and master status
What are the differences between role strain and role conflict?
- role strain refers to conflicting demands within the same status
- role conflict refers to the tension between two or more roles pertaining to different statuses
What's ascribed status?
- involutary status
- one is born with
What's achieved status?
- voluntary status
- one enters
What is master status?
one status within a set that stands out or overides all others
What is "gender roles?"
- a set of behavioral norms associated with males or females in a given social group or system
- can be powerful and influential than other roles
What is meant by "socially constructed?"
- people give meaning or value to ideas or objects through interactions
- it is an on going process that is embedded in our everyday interactions
What is symbolic interactionism?
a micro-level theory based on the idea that people act in accordance with shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions
What's Erving Goffman's theory?
- Dramaturgical Theory
- social life as theatrical performance
an approach to studying human interaction that focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world, convey this understanding to others, and produce a mutually shared social order
What was Harold Garfinkel's method of studying social interactions?
developed a method for studying social interactions, called “breaching experiments,” that involved having collaborators exhibit “abnormal” or “atypical” behaviors in social interactions in order to see how people would react
What did the internet create?
- New type of social interaction that don't incorporate verbal and visual cues people are accustomed to replying on
- new type of crimes and new way of communicating