what other condition can tricyclic antidepressants help with?
condition characterized by disturbed thought processes (delusions/hallucinations) and that the positive or agitative symptoms of psychosis are thought to be primarily due to an overactivity of dopamine in the limbic system-negative symptoms may be attibutable to decrease dopamine in higher areas of the brain
what do antipsychotic medications block?
dopamine receptors especially D2
do antipsychotic meds have motor and nonmotor side effects?
tardive dyskinesia symptoms are hardest to alleviate and last to show up. T/F
antiseizure meds: generally ______(inhibit/excite) the firing of cerebral neurons usually by _____(increasing/decreasing) inhibitory effects of GABA by ______(increasing/decreasing) the effects of excitatory amino acids
SEs of antiseizure meds
sedation, ataxia, nystagmus, GI distress, dizziness
______% of people can remain seizure fress after their medication is withdrawn
3 main criteria for patients who would be good candidates for slow withdrawal
effectiveness may suddenly decrease resulting in the abrupt worsening of parkinsonian symptoms =?
remission of symptoms may then generally occur spontaneously or after taking a dose of levidopa
ideal characteristics of general anesthetic (6)
1-loss of consciousness/sensation
3-skeletal mm relaxation
4-inhib of sensory and autonomic reflexes
5-minimum of toxic SE
6-rapid onset of anesthesia
general anesthetic is given by inhalation or injection. T/F
where are inhalation effects generally stored?
fat and excreted thru the lungs
can a neuromuscular blocker cause anesthesia on its own?
applied directly to the surface of the skin, mucous membranes, cornea or other regions of the body. used for minor abrasions, inflammation, and minor burns, reduces pain prior to minor surgical procedures and used to improve motor function in patients with hypertonicity
used to anesthetize a region of skin before treating painful subcutaneous structures w/o breaking the skin. used in dermatological procedures and to treat localized pain in musculoskeletal conditions and neuropathic pain
injected into a nerve trunk so that transmission along the peripheral nerve is interrupted. used for dental procedures to block other peripheral nerve to allow certain surgical procedures of the hand, foot, shoulder, etc it can be continued after the completion of surgery to provide pain management
peripheral nerve block
injected w/in the spaces surrounding the spinal cord. used when analgesia is needed in a large region, and epidural and spinal routes are used frequently to administer local anesthetics during obstretic procedures
central nerve block
useful in cases of complex regional pain syndrome, RSD and causalgia
(bier block) used to anesthetize the forearm, hand or distal leg, ankle or foot for short periods to allow certain surgeries or to treat conditions such as CRPS
intravenous regional anesthesia
how do local anesthetics work?
block AP propagation along axons, occurs from anesthetic molecule inhibiting the opening of membrane Na channels
ability of a given local anesthetic dose to block specific nerve fiber groups depending on the size of the fibers