Molecular Biology

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Author:
ckluckner
ID:
77885
Filename:
Molecular Biology
Updated:
2011-04-07 17:36:32
Tags:
DNA RNA
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Description:
Molecular Biology
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  1. Molecular Biology is the study of what?
    The study of DNA
  2. Nucleic Acid
    Polymer of Nucleotides
  3. DNA Function
    Heriditory Information (info passed onto offspring)
  4. DNA Components
    • (Nucleotide)
    • 1.Phosphate
    • 2.Sugar
    • 3.Nitrogenous Base
  5. DNA Bases
    • Purines (Double Ring)
    • Adenine
    • Guanine
    • Pyrimidines (Single Ring)
    • Cytosine
    • Thymine
  6. DNA Structure
    • Adenine & Thymine always linked
    • Cytosine & Guanine always linked
  7. RNA Function
    • "Single Strand"
    • mRNA: Messenger (carrying message)
    • rRNA: Ribosomal (Producing Proteins)
    • tRNA: Transfer Amino Acids
  8. RNA Components
    • Sugar: Ribose
    • Nitrogenous Base
  9. RNA Bases
    • Purines (Double Ring)
    • Adenine
    • Guanine
    • Pyrimidines (Single Ring)
    • Cytosine
    • Uracil
  10. RNA Structure (Diagram)
  11. DNA Replication "PROCESS"
    • 1. Helicase (enzyme): Unwind double helix
    • 2. DNA Polymerase (enzyme): Reads DNA and adds bases- drops in behind helicase and goes in opposite direction to add bases
    • 3. Ligase (enzyme): Connects/completes fragments of missing nucletides
  12. DNA Replication "GENE EXPRESSION"
    • "making genes function"
    • Process:
    • 1) Transcription: (DNA->RNA) copying DNA in form of RNA
    • 2) Translation: (RNA->Protein) using RNA to make proteins
  13. DNA Replication Gene Expression Process "BROWNIE EXAMPLE"
    Counter Oven

    Contents-->Batter
    ][--->Brownies

    • (transcription) (translation)
    • DNA-->RNA][-------->Protein

    Nucleus Cytoplasm
  14. DNA Transcription Processes
    • DNA-->RNA
    • 1.Intitiation: RNA Polymerase unwinds DNA in promoter region where it starts
    • 2. Elongation: RNA Polymerase ADDS BASES to make mRNA
    • 3. Termination: RNA Polymerase breaks off terminator region, mRNA breaks off into cytoplasm

    END RESULT: RNA Polymerase and mRNA
  15. DNA Transcription Processes
  16. Genetic Code
    1 codon made up of 3 bases that code for 1 amino acid

    • Special Codons
    • AUG--> Start--> MET (MET starts it)

    • UAA}
    • UAG}- STOP--> No Amino Acid
    • UGA}
  17. Mutation Definition and Types
    • "Change in DNA"
    • 1) Substitution: replacing a base
    • 2) Insertion: adding base
    • 3) Deletion: removing base
  18. Causes of Mutation
    • Mutagenesis- production of mutation
    • -Error in DNA Replication
    • Mutagen: Physical or chemical agent (ex. the sun-causes radiation)
    • -carinogen--chemical causes cancer
  19. Mutation Cell Types
    • Somatic Cell: The Individual
    • Gametic Cell: The Offspring
  20. Controlling Gene Expression
    All cells have same genetic information, BUT are expressed differently
  21. Genetic Basis of Cancer
    Mutation occurs in DNA--->Seen in Protein

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