Ch.9 Leadership exam 2sle
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Coast GUard case
Coast Guard people had the ability to act independently without talking to their superriors.
Used their 7 characteristics traits they are taught to follow helped them summon up the courage confidence and cahracter necessary to risk their lives for others
What is Self-Leadership?
self direction and self motivation
-The self-direction partof the definition meansthat self-leaders have todirect their attention andfocus towards the goalsthey want—the ones theyhave consciously picked.• Focus: avoid distractions.
-The second part ofthe definition meansthat self-leaders takeresponsibility for motivating themselves.This is especially important when workingon unpleasant or difficulttasks, or on tasks thathave little immediateintrinsic value but greatlong-term benefits.
The Three Foes of Self-Management
1. Inability to delaygratification hinderedgoal setting
• 2. Procrastinationhindered goals,monitoring, andoperating or followingthrough
• 3. Emotional self-absorption increasedprocrastination andreduced the used of
Neck and Houghton (2006)
Self leadership tactics
categorize self leadership into 3 categories
2. Natural Reward Strategies
3. constructive thought pattern strategies
behavior focused self leadership, Boss and Sims (2008)
- involvesusing action-orientedstrategies to accomplishtasks that are difficultor are neither enjoyablenor motivating”
- steps in to accomplish this
- Self observation
self goal setting- setting goals in general can increase motivation, for a company involve subordinates in goal setting
Natural Reward Strategies
Add pleasant activities• Focus on the pleasantaspects• Jobs are naturallyrewarding whenpeople have feelings ofcompetence, feelingsof self-control, andfeelings of purpose
Constructive Thought Patterns
Identify thoughtpatterns andbeliefs• Replace negativeself-talk withpositive self-talk• Use mentalimagery andrehearsal
- He had a support network
- friends and family
- had his borhter
- best friend from high school
Had father figure Gil, his trainer
Driskell, Copper, Moran (1994) Meta analysis on mental imagery and performance
found overall positive support for the relationship between mental imagery and individual performance
- occured for both physical and mental things,
- effect on mental stuff was stronger
Study of an airline that was undergoingbankruptcy reorganization
Researchers used thought based self learship in an organization setting and taught it to a group of low morale employees
employees who received the training were rated higher in job performance than those who were not taught this
Self-Leadership and Self-Efficacy
Prussie reserachers found that self leadership influenced people's self efficay, their own beleif that they could do the task involded, this in turn improved performance
self leadership = self efficacy = Performance
self leadership in a paper mill experiment
41 supervisors received a one day traing program on improving communication skills, followed by a refresher course
then they were assinged to 1 of 4 groups
- 1. control
- 2. goal setting
- 3. mental imagery practice
- 4. mental imagery practice plus goal setting
- 4. showed the highest self efficacy
- 3. showed increased self efficacy and communication skills
- 2. goal setting on its own was insignificant
What is Empowerment?
Empowerment is aset of managementpractices that givesgreater autonomy andcontrol to workers
• Self-managed workteams are one typeof empowermentpractice in which groupmembers take on manyof the responsibilitiesformerly assigned tofront-line supervisors
By 1995, Lawler,Mohrman, and Ledford(1995) found that68% of the Fortune1000 companies usedempowered teams forat least some workactivities
• Some experts believethat as much as 80% ofmedium (100 workersor more) to largeorganizations use someform of teams
- This involves
Employees feelpsychologicalempowerment whenthey feel they havechoices and the powerto initiate action, whenthey feel competent,when they perceive theyhave an impact, andwhen they feel the job ismeaningful
in order to initate action employees must have confidence to believe they can be effective
-most empowerment programs fail, because employees are not properly trained, i.e. not trained in scheduling budgeting, ordering inventories ect.
thought to work because it influence the intrinsic motivation of employees
A meta-analysis foundthat supervisors’participative behaviorsinfluenced employeesintrinsic motivation,which in turn influencedtheir organizationalcommitment.
Daphne Jones Ignites HerPassion for IT and Health Care
Switched jobs to helpsave lives• As Daphne observes, ifyou have a job withouta purpose, you’renot going to be verymotivated. But if youfind something you arepassionate about, thenyou’re going to do thatjob very, very well.
Empowerment in theTelecommunications Industry: A ChineseExample
Senior managers’use of participativeleadership increasedthe middle-managers’psychologicalempowerment, whichin turn increased themiddle managers’job performance andtheir organizationalcitizenship behaviors
For front-line workersthe subordinates’ trustin their supervisors wasmore important thantheir psychologicalempowerment inexplaining theirjob performanceand organizationalcitizenship behaviors
Empowerment in Public SchoolSystems
Principals who practicedan empoweringleadership style wereable to improve thelead teachers’ jobsatisfaction and theirperformance• Moreover, theempowering principalsreduced dysfunctionalresistance
Empower Your Team to Sell
leader empowermet behavior depended upon the degree of team interpersonal climate and consensus. If this was bad empowerment didn't do shit
Leader empowermentonly had positive effectson team potency whenteam interpersonalclimate was strong
• Team potencyinfluenced effortand objective salesperformance
Leaders need to payattention to creatingpositive interpersonalclimates among theteam members if theywant to empower theteam
Shared leadership: “adynamic, interactiveinfluence process amongindividuals in groups forwhich the objective is tolead one another to theachievement of group ororganizational goals orboth. This influence processoften involves peer, orlateral, influence and atother times involves upwardor downward hierarchical influence
Shared Leadership in the KnowledgeEconomy
startups that practiced shared leadership had better performance
expertise is widely distributed among members
this results in leadership being distributted thoughout organization and across hiearchal levels, thus resulting in collective leadership
High care teamatmospheres’ existwhen team membersexperience mutualtrust, active empathy,leniency in judgment(about others opinions),courage (to state one’sown opinions), andaccess to help
team members need to boost team emembers confidence in their team members abilities, to get most out of them
“theperceived probabilitythat collective effortwill result in collectiveaccomplishments”
When work is done inteams, it is possiblethat collective efficacymay be more importantthan self-efficacy indetermining how hardsomeone works (Kellett,Humphrey, & Sleeth,2009)
group think were memevers are unable to evaluate deciscions rationally
when there is a presence of high interpersonal cohesion or a narrow focus on a common task be wary you don't get "summit fever"
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