____ is the taking of food into digestive system by way of mouth.
chewing to pulverize food and mix it with saliva
________ is swallowing of food to move it from mouth to stomach
___ is mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
____mixes food with digestive juices and incers effciency of absoprtion.
______ is the passage of moleculs of food through mucous membranes of small intestine ( into circulatory and lymphatic systems for distribution)
_____begins at the esophagus; rhythmic wavelike intestinal contractions that move food through the digestive tract.
_____ is discharge of idigestible wastes (feces)
______extends from mouth to anus and is also know as the gastrointestinal/ GI tract
- organs of the GI tract include oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach small intestin and large intestin
teeth, tounge, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and pancreas are _________.
_____generally refers to developing stomach and intestine in embryo.
Andy of the organs ( lungs,stomach, spleen etc.)
Layers of the alimentary canal are called __________ and there are 4 of them from the esophagus to the anal canal.
______ is the innermost layer of alimnetary cannal, surround lumen of GI tract
-s ecrets mucus, digestive enzymes and hormones
secrete mucus throughout the GI tract
____ is a thin biding layer of connective tissue.
- suppors simple coluumnar epithelila tissue
- helps protect against disease
2 thin layes of smooth muscle in mucosa are __________.
_____ is realatively thick and highly vascualarized
also contains collagenous fibers, various glands and nerves
2nd layers of alimentary canal
_____ provides autonomic nerve supply to muscularis mucosae
_______ is responsible for segmental contractions and peristalic movment in the alimentary canal
_____ is the outermost layer of the GI tract.
It is the binding and protecting layer ( much areolar connective tissue)
covered with simple squamous epithelim and connective tissue
____ is receptacle for food, initiates digestion through mastication, swallowing, forming words airs pasagewya
- defined by cheeks lips, hard palate, soft palate and tounge
The mouth contains _______, which are antimicrobial compunds proudced in response to injury.
- protect the mouth from disease causing microbes
-refered to as oral or buccal cavity
initates digestion of carbs
_____ is the depression between cheeks and lips externally
- area of gums and teeth internally
opening of oral cavity is ____________.
______ are openings between oral cavity and pharynx.
_____ and ____ assit in manipulating food in oral cavity ,and aid in speech
cheeks and lips
each lip is attached by inner surface to gum by a midline fold of mucous membrane called _________.
_____ or ____ is the transition zone between outer skin and muccous membrane of oral cavity
vermilion or red margin
_____ fills most of the oral cavity when mouth is closed.
- mostly made of skelatal muscle
covered by a mucous membran
moves food around in mouth during mastication
resposnible for froming bolus
assist ins sallyoing food
essential to producing articulic speech
_____ _______ is undersurface attachemtn of toung to floor of mouth
_____ are small elevation on dorasal surface of tounge.
3 tpes on dorsum of tounge
_____ are papillae that are sensitive to touch. They aid in licking semisolid foods, provide friction for manipulating food, and contain keratin which gives awhitish apperance .
Large rounded and reddish type of papillae. They house the tastebuds.
Arranged in U-shape on posterior surface, and house taste bunds
___ is the roof of the oral caivty; coverd by mucoous membranes.
______ is underlain by bone and food is pushed agains during chewing.
___ is transver ridges along hard palate area that serve as friction ridges for tounge during swallowing.
Fold of mostly skeletal muscle
cone-shaped; free edge that projects downward
accesory digestive glands; produce saliva; initaties digestion of carbs; produced primarly by 3 pairs of glands; moistens food
largest of salivary glands; below and inf front of ear
inferior to mandabile and midway on inside of jaw
on floor of mouth under tounge
humans have _______
sockets containg teeth
4 pairs; chisel-shaped for cutting and shearing have single root
2 pairs; cons shaped for hoiding and tearing; have a single root
canines / cuspids
1,2, or 3 roots; used for curshing and grinding
premolars (bicuspids) and molars
2 sets of teeht in lifetiem
20 _______ or ______ teeth
deciduous or milk
32 _____ teeth (replacment begins at age 6 to about 17)
______ or ____ are last to errupt. May cause seriouc crowidngor impaction since jaw is fully formed by their apperance