Bones of Lower Extremity
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- Pelvic girdle - made up of 3 bones: ilium, ischium, and pubis.
- Acetabulum: large depression that articulates with the head of the femur.
- Sacroiliac Joint: lateral region that is location of aticulation between sacrum and ilium.
- Symphis pubis: anterior medially, region that articulates anteriorly with both ischium.
- Largest of pelvic bones, makes up superior aspect of individual os coxa.
- Iliac Crest: Superior ridge that runs anteriorly to posteriorly on the sagittal plain.
- Illiac Fossa: large depression on medial face of illium.
- Aricular Surface: ruff medial region of illium where sacroilliac joint articulates.
- Anterior Superior Iliac Spine(ASIS): follows the illiac crest anterior inferiorly. Most anterior aspect.
- Anterior Inferior Illiac Spine(AIIS): inferior to ASIS.
- Posterior Superior Illiac Spine(PSIS): dorsal aspect of illium. Dorsal of aricular surface.
- Posterior Inferior Spine(PIIS): inferior to PSIS.
- Greater Sciatic Notch: hook-like notch on the dorsal inferior region of illium.
- Ischial tuberosity: ruff dorsal inferior region of ischium.
- Obturator Foramina: large inferior lateral foramen.
- Rami: horizontal region that runs anterior to posterior along sagittal plane. Makes up inferior portion of obturator foramen.
- Lesser sciatic notch: inferior greater sciatic notch.
- Symphis Pubis: anterial medial area that articulates the two ischium of the os coxa.
- Superiror & Inferior Rami: superior to the symphis pubis.
- Head & Neck of Femur
- Fovea Capitis: circle fossa at the center superior aspect of head.
- Greater Trochanter:
- Lesser Trochanter:
- Linea Aspera:
- Intertrochanteric Line:
- Medial & Lateral Epicondyles:
- Medial & Lateral Condyles: distal aspect of femur. Articulate with condyles of tibia.
- Intercondylar Fossa: space between condyles.
- Petellar Surface: smooth facet that articulates with the petella.
- Lateral & Medial Condyles: articulate with superior condyles of femur.
- Intercondylar Eminence: process between both condyles.
- Tibial tuberosity: ruff anterior medial area on proximal end of tibia. Location of petallar ligament attachment.
- Medial Malleolus:
- Fibular Notch: facet that aticulates distally with fibia to form inferior tibiofibio joint.
- Lateral Malleolus: articulates with talus of the tarsus.
- Head of fibia: most proximal superior aspect of fibia.
Tarsus or Ankle
- 7 bones
- Talus: superior surface articulates with inferior surfaces of tibia and fibia (medial & lateral malleoli).
- 1st Cuneiform: start medially and go laterally. Also known as medial cuneiform
- 2nd Cuneiform: also known as middle cuneifrom
- 3rd Cuneiform: also known as lateral cuneiform
- Numbers of metatarsuls begin medially and go laterally.
- I, II, III, IV, and V.
- Big toes only has proximal and distal phalanx
- 2-5 phalanx have proximal, middle, and distal.
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