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United States. Country who wanted to stay out of war and did all they could to do just that, �neutrality acts�
The living space for the German race
Britain and France agreed to appeasement. Which was basically they would meet all of Hitler�s demands in return for peace.
Britain and France agreed to Hitler�s demands. Policy of giving concessions in exchange for peace
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
A pact between Nazis and the USSR. Shocked the world as Nazism and Communism were supposed to be opposed to each other. Hitler did this to avoid war with USSR�s countries and Poland. A secret part of the treaty was that they would divide Poland between them.
German Jews lose their citizenship, jobs, and property
a.k.a- �Night of Broken Glass�, Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues across Germany (murdered approx. 100 Jews)
A program of Genocide or systematic killing of an entire people
Selective Training and Service Act
Nations first peacetime military draft
US would lend of lease arms of other supplies to �any country whose defense was vital to the US�
Supreme commander of allied forces in Europe. Organized a surprise attack on coast of Normandy: largest combined air, sea, and land attack in history
Battle of the Bulge
Germany�s last great attack in WWII. Hitler tried to counterattack Allies and Soviet Union but lost and retreated
Prime minister in Britain. Believed peace was not an option and war was a fight to defend civilization.
Also meaning, �divine wind�, and they were suicide attacks where bombers would crash planes into allied boats.
Emperor of Japan. Was the only reson Japna would not surrender unconditionally because they wanted to keep their emperor. In the ned they were allowed to.
Prime minister of Japan
Victory in Europe Day. After Hitler commited suicide to avoid being forced to surrender
Took over as president when Roosevelt had a stroke and died.
Britain was trying to evacuate their troops via the port at Dunkirk as the German troops had trapped them everywhere else. For some reason Hitler ordered his troops to stop which gave Britain enough time to strengthen it�s forces and escape.
Battle of Britain
Britain would not surrender so an air battle began. German bombers accidentally bombed London so Britain bombed the German capital. The British won because they used radar. Hitler cancelled the invasion of Britain.
Fall of France
Britain and France ended up trapped in Belgium by the Germans. The French surrendered.
Victory in Japan Day
Allies put Nazi war criminals on trial. Charged with committing crimes against humanity
The best kept secret in the war involing over 60,000??? people and only a select few knew what they were doing: creating an atomic bomb.
Why was Hitler able to come to power in Germany in the years leading up to WWII?
- Developed a hatred for Jews and foreigners in Vienna
- Became the leader of the Nazi party
- Wanted to seize control of Germany- Munich, capital of Bavaria, stage march on Berlin.
- It was a disaster and he was arrested. In jail he wrote a book, �Mein Kampf�
- Sought to win election
- Promised to fix economy and strengthen Germany again
- Hitler blamed the Reichstag Fire on communists- feared communists, voted for Nazis
- Blamed problems on Jews- scapegoats, provided explanation for Germany�s problems
- Promised specific things to groups in society
- Farmers: higher prices for produce
- Unemployed workers: Jobs
- Middle class: restore profits of small businesses. End communist threat
Describe Neutrality Acts. Why did policy change?
- Illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war.
- CHANGED TO�Warring nations could buy weapons from the US only if they paid cash and carried arms on own ships.
- Cash- no debt with warring nation
- Carry- do not put our people in danger when delivering it
- Changed: Public opinion, wanted to help Britain and France in their fight against Hitler.
September 1, 1939. What happened? Why is it significant?
- Germany invaded Poland from the west, later Soviets invaded from east. Soon after Britian and France declare war on Germany.
- Marked the start of WWII.
What was the Holocaust? What groups were singled out in addition to Jewish people?
- The mass slaughtering of Jews and other civilians carried out by the Nazi govt. before and during WWII.
- Jews, Poles, Soviet P.O.W, Gypsies
Describe conditions in the ghettos and concentration camps.
- Given 48 hours to leave homes
- Held in with concrete walls and barbed wire
- 9-10 families in each ghetto
- Random shootings, dig own grave and be executed in it, injured shot in their beds
- Gas chambers, execution devices, crematoria for disposing corpses
- Mal nutrition, typhus, exhaustion that caused death
Why didn�t the US accept as many Jews as it might have?
US got over 100,000 visa-applications from Jews trying to leave Germany-Nazi orders prohibited Jews from taking more than 4 dollars out of Germany-laws restricted granting visas to anyone likely to become a public charge-few Americans wanted to raise immigration quotas b.c. unemployment-no exceptions for refugees or victims of persecution
What was the Atlantic Charter? What was the main objective of the document?
- Committed leaders to a postwar world of democracy, non-aggression, free trade, economid advancement, and freedom of the seas.
- Outlined goals of US and Britain in opposing axis powers.
What did FDR mean when he said the US had to become the great arsenal of democracy?
What happened on December 7, 1941? Why? Results?
- Attack on Pearl Harbor
- Because the US stopped oil shipments to Japan
- Japanese planes bombed American fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii (Largest US naval base)
- As a result the US joined the war
How did women get involved in WWII?
- WAC- women army corps: women drove trucks, flew airplanes, operated control towers, repaired equipment, mastered Morse code
- Treated- prejudice, made fun of
- Changed- wore practical clothing, tied up hair, wore hard hats, shopping stored open late and day-cares installed as they had to handle a job and the children
- After war- women fired
How were AA discriminated against in military and in defense industries in WWII?
- Army: segregated by race, black officer can�t outrank white one
- Navy: Only accepted blacks as mess (dining hall) attendants
- Marines: Not recruit any blacks
- Red cross separated blood plasma of black/white
- Rigid segregation- separate production line, separate toilets, bomb shelter �for colored ppl only�
Executive order 9066? How did FDR justify signing it?
- Authorized the secretary of war to prescribe military areas
- Justified: claimed that more than 2/3 of those interned were Amer. citizens and � of them were children
Describe the conditions in Japanese internment camps. How were the people treated?
- In there because they were suspected spies
- Only allowed few possessions, 48 hours to evacuate, scared, children crying, housed in barracks, communal areas for washing, laundry, and eating.
- What were the major sources of revenue that the US govt. used to support involvement in WWII?
- Victory tax- 5% surcharge on all income taxes
- Automatically deduct a percentage of taxes from most American paychecks
- Issued war bonds- E bonds: sold for $18.25 redeemed for $25.00 after 10 years.
Describe the wartime prosperity experienced in America.
- Able to buy many necessities and comfort items they dreamed about
- Business and farm profits rose
- 17 million new jobs
What government agency was in charge of food rationing? Describe how they went about rationing food.
- OPA- office of price administration
- Limited availability of meat and sugar
- Gasoline- rationed, driving restricted
- Blue coupons: controlled processed foods
- Red coupons: controlled meats, fats, and oils
- Each person 48 blue points and 68 red points
What happened on June 6th, 1944? Why is that significant?
- Designated day for the invasion to begin
- A successful invasion of 3 areas
Douglas MacArthur? Name of strategy he creates? How does it work?
- An American general who decided he wanted to leap frog, or bypass, Japanese strongholds.
- He would take less-fortified islands, build airfields on them, and use it to destroy enemies around them.
What were 2 islands that needed to be captured before Allies could launch direct assault on Japan? Why were they important? What were results of each battle?
- Iwo Jima and Okinawa
- Iwo Jima: base where heavily bombers could reach Japan. Located in between Japan and US base
- Result- 6,000 marines dead. US successful.
- Okinawa: we could reach mainland Japan, even closer than Iwo Jima
- Result- US successful, access to mainland Japan
Operation Detachment? 3 major difficulties for marines during it. Results?
- The landing on Iwo Jima
- 1. Always in range of Japanese guns
- 2. Lack of shallow water
- 3. Can�t dig foxholes
- Lost over 6,000 men, Japanese lost 21,000 (only 214 lived). Japanese surrendered
Explain 3 significant arguments in favor of dropping atomic bomb and 3 arguments against it.
- American casualties are already so high and we don�t want to risk any more loss of lives
- Belief that the only way the Japanese will unconditionally surrender is if they bomb the cities. They tried to warn them and they still wouldn�t surrender.
- They were having problems with the soviet union and were fearing Soviet influence in Asia. They felt the bomb would cause America to be seen as a stronger power over them.
- The bomb was a dangerous weapon and it would continue affecting Japan through radiation. Scientists did not understand its potential quite yet.
- If it doesn�t work it would be a large waste of money
- Japan could shoot down the delivery plane
Where and when did the US drop bombs on Japan? Describe effects of the bombs on Japan. How did the leaders of Japan react to these actions? Why did they react that way?
- Hiroshima- 43 seconds, every building turned to dust, as if it ceased to exist
- Nagasaki- � city destroyed, 200,000 people died in total.
- After 1st bomb Japan refused to surrender but after the second they did because they felt they had to save their innocent people
Who was involved in the Yalta conference? What was agreed on at that conference?
- FDR, Churchill, and Stalin
- 1. Set up and international peace keeping body based on the principles of the Atlantic Charter (United Nations)
- 2. Stalin promised the eastern European countries will have free elections
Describe the American occupation of Japan.
- 3 main objectives:
- Demilitarization- disbanding of the armed forces (left with only small police force, US military protection for country)
- Democratization- process of creating a govt. elected by the people (new constitution, parliamentary democracy)
- Economic reform and recovery- free-market practices