B Micro Exam two

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B Micro Exam two
2011-04-06 22:02:36
viruses prions pathogenicity infection control

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  1. Define: acellular microbe
    • w/o a cell
    • not living
  2. Define: capsid
    protein covering
  3. Define: capsomere
    indv proteins that make up a capsid
  4. What are the 4 potential genomes for viruses?
    • 1. double stranded DNA
    • 2. single stranded DNA
    • 3. double stranded RNA
    • 4. single stranded RNA
  5. What are the 5 possible capsid shapes for viruses?
    • 1. polyhedral (icosahedral 20 sides)
    • 2. helical
    • 3. bullet shaped
    • 4. spherical
    • 5. combo
  6. What do bacteriophages infect?
  7. Define: lytic cycle
    • killing cycle
    • virus takes over metabolic machinery of host cell
  8. Define: virulent phage
    infect bacteria by the lytic cycle
  9. Define: temperate phage
    dont immd start the lytic cycle
  10. Define: lysogenic cycle
    virus doesn't immd kill the cells
  11. What is the major event that occurs in the steps of the lytic cycle?
    • attachment: virus attaches to protein
    • penetration: DNA of virus enters cell
    • biosynthesis: virus parts are made
    • assembly: put together
    • release: viruses let go
  12. How does the lysogenic cycle differ from the lytic cycle?
    • lytic cycle causes you to get sick right away
    • lysogenic cycles does not get you sick right away
  13. Does the lytic cycle & lysogenic cycle cause disease?
  14. What is a latent virus infection?
    always in the body, but only shows up from time to time
  15. What are 2 things that antiviral agents interfere with?
    • disrupting critical phases in viral reproduction
    • inhibiting the synthesis of viral nucleic acids
  16. What is an oncogenic virus?
    virus that causes cancer
  17. Define: viroid
    piece of DNA w/o a covering
  18. Define: prion
    causes disease in animals & humans
  19. Define: healthcare-associated infection (HAI)
    getting an infection inside a hospital or healthcare facility
  20. Name 3 bacteria responsible for HAIs
    • 1. S aureus, MRSA
    • 2. enterococcus spp
    • 3. E. Coli
  21. Define: contact transmission
    touching someone
  22. Define: droplet transmission
  23. Define: airborne transmission
    microbes in the air
  24. Who is most likely to develop HAIs?
    anyone with a weak immune system
  25. Define: medical asepsis
    clean technique
  26. Define: surgical asepsis
    sterile technique for surgical equipment
  27. Define: personal protective equipment
    gloves, gowns, masks, eye protection, & respiratory protection
  28. Define: critical items
    in contact with body cavities
  29. Define: semicritical items
    dont' come in contact with body cavities
  30. Define: noncritical items
    in contact with skin
  31. What are standard precautions
    protects healthcare workers & patients
  32. What are contact precautions?
    used to prevent direct contact
  33. What are droplet precautions?
    wear mask & goggles to prevent contamination from droplets
  34. What are airborne precautions?
    wear respirator & mask to prevent airborne pathogens
  35. Why is proper handwashing so important?
    to prevent & control infections
  36. What is proper handling of gloves so important?
    to protect patients & healthcare workers
  37. How do you remove gloves from your hands?
    • 1. take 1 glove off with other hand and pull it inside out & put in other hand
    • 2. hand w/o glove reach inside gloved hand & pull off & make inside out. (both gloves in 1 ball)
    • 3. dispose
  38. What are sharps?
  39. How are sharps disposed of properly?
    in sharps container
  40. Define: positive pressure room
    • door allows air to exit
    • vents filter air into room
  41. Define: negative pressure room
    • door allows air to enter
    • air exits through vent filter
  42. Define: fomites
    inanimate object where anything can be contaminated
  43. Define: pathogen
    makes you sick
  44. Define: pathogenicity
    causes disease
  45. Define: pathogenesis
    process of getting sick & recovering
  46. Define: infection
    colonization by a pathogen
  47. Define: microbial antagonism
    killing of 1 microbe
  48. Define: bateriocins
    proteins that kill other bacteria
  49. Define: incubation period
    from when a virus lands on you till the time you show symptoms (hrs to days)
  50. Define: prodromal period
    not feeling up to par, but not sick YET
  51. Define: period of illness
  52. Define: convalescent period
    patient recovers
  53. Define: systematic infection
    all over your body sickness, flu
  54. Define: localized infection
    small site, pimple
  55. Define: acute disease
    • starts quick, ends quick
    • diarrhea
  56. Define: chronic disease
    sick for a really long time (years)
  57. Define: subacute disease
    • not as quick as acute but not as slow as chronic
    • (in between)
  58. Define: symptoms
    evidence of a disease
  59. Define: asymptomatic
    no symptoms but have disease
  60. Define: sign of disease
    evidence your sick