B Micro Exam two
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B Micro Exam two
viruses prions pathogenicity infection control
Define: acellular microbe
w/o a cell
indv proteins that make up a capsid
What are the 4 potential genomes for viruses?
1. double stranded DNA
2. single stranded DNA
3. double stranded RNA
4. single stranded RNA
What are the 5 possible capsid shapes for viruses?
1. polyhedral (icosahedral 20 sides)
3. bullet shaped
What do bacteriophages infect?
Define: lytic cycle
virus takes over metabolic machinery of host cell
Define: virulent phage
infect bacteria by the lytic cycle
Define: temperate phage
dont immd start the lytic cycle
Define: lysogenic cycle
virus doesn't immd kill the cells
What is the major event that occurs in the steps of the lytic cycle?
: virus attaches to protein
: DNA of virus enters cell
: virus parts are made
: put together
: viruses let go
How does the lysogenic cycle differ from the lytic cycle?
lytic cycle causes you to get sick right away
lysogenic cycles does not get you sick right away
Does the lytic cycle & lysogenic cycle cause disease?
What is a latent virus infection?
always in the body, but only shows up from time to time
What are 2 things that antiviral agents interfere with?
disrupting critical phases in viral reproduction
inhibiting the synthesis of viral nucleic acids
What is an oncogenic virus?
virus that causes cancer
piece of DNA w/o a covering
causes disease in animals & humans
Define: healthcare-associated infection (HAI)
getting an infection inside a hospital or healthcare facility
Name 3 bacteria responsible for HAIs
1. S aureus, MRSA
2. enterococcus spp
3. E. Coli
Define: contact transmission
Define: droplet transmission
Define: airborne transmission
microbes in the air
Who is most likely to develop HAIs?
anyone with a weak immune system
Define: medical asepsis
Define: surgical asepsis
sterile technique for surgical equipment
Define: personal protective equipment
gloves, gowns, masks, eye protection, & respiratory protection
Define: critical items
in contact with body cavities
Define: semicritical items
dont' come in contact with body cavities
Define: noncritical items
in contact with skin
What are standard precautions
protects healthcare workers & patients
What are contact precautions?
used to prevent direct contact
What are droplet precautions?
wear mask & goggles to prevent contamination from droplets
What are airborne precautions?
wear respirator & mask to prevent airborne pathogens
Why is proper handwashing so important?
to prevent & control infections
What is proper handling of gloves so important?
to protect patients & healthcare workers
How do you remove gloves from your hands?
1. take 1 glove off with other hand and pull it inside out & put in other hand
2. hand w/o glove reach inside gloved hand & pull off & make inside out. (both gloves in 1 ball)
What are sharps?
How are sharps disposed of properly?
in sharps container
Define: positive pressure room
door allows air to exit
vents filter air into room
Define: negative pressure room
door allows air to enter
air exits through vent filter
inanimate object where anything can be contaminated
makes you sick
process of getting sick & recovering
colonization by a pathogen
Define: microbial antagonism
killing of 1 microbe
proteins that kill other bacteria
Define: incubation period
from when a virus lands on you till the time you show symptoms (hrs to days)
Define: prodromal period
not feeling up to par, but not sick YET
Define: period of illness
Define: convalescent period
Define: systematic infection
all over your body sickness, flu
Define: localized infection
small site, pimple
Define: acute disease
starts quick, ends quick
Define: chronic disease
sick for a really long time (years)
Define: subacute disease
not as quick as acute but not as slow as chronic
evidence of a disease
no symptoms but have disease
Define: sign of disease
evidence your sick