B Micro Exam two
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Define: acellular microbe
indv proteins that make up a capsid
What are the 4 potential genomes for viruses?
- 1. double stranded DNA
- 2. single stranded DNA
- 3. double stranded RNA
- 4. single stranded RNA
What are the 5 possible capsid shapes for viruses?
- 1. polyhedral (icosahedral 20 sides)
- 2. helical
- 3. bullet shaped
- 4. spherical
- 5. combo
What do bacteriophages infect?
Define: lytic cycle
- killing cycle
- virus takes over metabolic machinery of host cell
Define: virulent phage
infect bacteria by the lytic cycle
Define: temperate phage
dont immd start the lytic cycle
Define: lysogenic cycle
virus doesn't immd kill the cells
What is the major event that occurs in the steps of the lytic cycle?
- attachment: virus attaches to protein
- penetration: DNA of virus enters cell
- biosynthesis: virus parts are made
- assembly: put together
- release: viruses let go
How does the lysogenic cycle differ from the lytic cycle?
- lytic cycle causes you to get sick right away
- lysogenic cycles does not get you sick right away
Does the lytic cycle & lysogenic cycle cause disease?
What is a latent virus infection?
always in the body, but only shows up from time to time
What are 2 things that antiviral agents interfere with?
- disrupting critical phases in viral reproduction
- inhibiting the synthesis of viral nucleic acids
What is an oncogenic virus?
virus that causes cancer
piece of DNA w/o a covering
causes disease in animals & humans
Define: healthcare-associated infection (HAI)
getting an infection inside a hospital or healthcare facility
Name 3 bacteria responsible for HAIs
- 1. S aureus, MRSA
- 2. enterococcus spp
- 3. E. Coli
Define: contact transmission
Define: droplet transmission
Define: airborne transmission
microbes in the air
Who is most likely to develop HAIs?
anyone with a weak immune system
Define: medical asepsis
Define: surgical asepsis
sterile technique for surgical equipment
Define: personal protective equipment
gloves, gowns, masks, eye protection, & respiratory protection
Define: critical items
in contact with body cavities
Define: semicritical items
dont' come in contact with body cavities
Define: noncritical items
in contact with skin
What are standard precautions
protects healthcare workers & patients
What are contact precautions?
used to prevent direct contact
What are droplet precautions?
wear mask & goggles to prevent contamination from droplets
What are airborne precautions?
wear respirator & mask to prevent airborne pathogens
Why is proper handwashing so important?
to prevent & control infections
What is proper handling of gloves so important?
to protect patients & healthcare workers
How do you remove gloves from your hands?
- 1. take 1 glove off with other hand and pull it inside out & put in other hand
- 2. hand w/o glove reach inside gloved hand & pull off & make inside out. (both gloves in 1 ball)
- 3. dispose
How are sharps disposed of properly?
in sharps container
Define: positive pressure room
- door allows air to exit
- vents filter air into room
Define: negative pressure room
- door allows air to enter
- air exits through vent filter
inanimate object where anything can be contaminated
makes you sick
process of getting sick & recovering
colonization by a pathogen
Define: microbial antagonism
killing of 1 microbe
proteins that kill other bacteria
Define: incubation period
from when a virus lands on you till the time you show symptoms (hrs to days)
Define: prodromal period
not feeling up to par, but not sick YET
Define: period of illness
Define: convalescent period
Define: systematic infection
all over your body sickness, flu
Define: localized infection
small site, pimple
Define: acute disease
- starts quick, ends quick
Define: chronic disease
sick for a really long time (years)
Define: subacute disease
- not as quick as acute but not as slow as chronic
- (in between)
evidence of a disease
no symptoms but have disease
Define: sign of disease
evidence your sick
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