Dental Materials

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Dental Materials
2011-04-21 16:29:23
chapter twelve

week twelve
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  1. Proper finishing and polishing of tooth structures and restorative material is significant and improves what 3 things?
    • improves aesthetics
    • improves tissue healing
    • increases longevity of filling
  2. What are 3 main goals of proper finishing and polishing?
    • remove excess material
    • smooth roughened surfaces
    • esthetic material with least trauma to tissue
  3. a smooth restoration surface will resist what 3 things?
    • plaque accumulation
    • stain accumulation
    • corrosion
  4. List 3 factors that affect abrasion.
    • size, irregularity, and HARDNESS of particles
    • NUMBER of particles contacting the surface
    • SPEED and pressure: the higher the speed, the more abrasive
  5. What is the most abrasive material used in dentistry?
  6. The larger, irregular particles = _________ abrasive
  7. What is the scale that ranks materials by abrasion resistance?
    MOH scale
  8. What is a dental implication with the fact that porcelain is harder than enamel or dentin?
    • If there are porcelain restorations opposite of regular tooth structure, it will cause it to abrade and breakdown
    • Abrasive wear of tooth structures in contact with porcelain restorations
  9. The greater the difference in the abrasive and the surface it is abrading, the ________ and _______ effective the abrasive action
    • faster
    • more
  10. Rate the structures in the body from hardest to softest.
    • enamel
    • bone
    • dentin
    • cementum
  11. What are the rankings of Moh's hardness scale for each of the following materials?
    • diamond: 10
    • pumice: 6-7
    • porcelain: 6-7
    • amalgam: 5-6
    • enamel: 5
    • composite: 3-7
    • dentin: 4
    • gold: 3
    • cementum: 2-3
  12. Increasing the speed and pressure of the abrasive will______________ the rate of absorption
  13. Increasing the pressure when using abrasives produces _________ from friction.
    heat: which may produce a detrimental effect on the tooth structure and on pt comfort
  14. true or false. In the use of abrasives, you want to start with the most and move to the least abrasive.
  15. Diamond abrasives rate a ________ on Moh scale. They have FINE diamond particles in pastes that are used to polish __________ and ____________ restorations
    • 10
    • composite
    • porcelain
  16. Which type of burs come in several shapes, with designs ranging from 7-30 cutting flutes, and the higher the number of these flutes, the finer is the final finish.
    tungsten carbide finishing burs
  17. The more flutes (in carbide finishing bur) the _______ the finish, it ___________ abrasiveness
    • finer
    • decreases
  18. Which type of abrasive material is a synthetic abrasive that is often manufactured in white or tan powder. It is used in sandblasting restorations and in preparation for cementation and air abrasion?
    aluminum oxide
  19. Which type of abrasive material is volcanic silica manufacturede as a loose abrasive. it is a major component of many prophylaxis pastes used to polish tooth structure, dental amalgam, and acrylic bases?
  20. What type of abrasive material can be used as FINAL polish for gold, ceramic, amalgam, or composite restorations in the mouth?
    tin oxide
  21. Which type of abrasive material is found in prophylaxis paste and DENTIFRICE?
    calcium carbonate
  22. true or false. fluoride rich enamel layer and exposed cementum or deminerlized enamel is removed when polishing with prophy paste. polish only surfaces with stain.
    both statements are true
  23. Abrasive agents in toothpaste improve efficacy to remove what 3 things?
    • stain
    • biofilm
    • debris
  24. How come prostheses with metal cannot be placed in dilute acid solutions or hypochlorite to clean them?
    because the bleach will react with the metal and cause CORROSION
  25. Denture cleansers loosen _______ and __________; freshen _________; use a ______________ material
    • stains
    • plaque
    • acrylic
    • non-abrasive
  26. What are 2 benefits of finishing and polishing amalgam restorations?
    • decreased biofilm retention
    • increased resistance to tarnish and corrosion
  27. In finishing and polishing amalgam restorations, you should begin by evaluating the ________ ____________ for prematurities and deficiencies; make it __________
    • cavosurface margin
    • smooth
  28. What is the removal of excessive restorative material from margins of restoration?
  29. What are 5 indications for margination of amalgam restorations?
    • Overhang or flash is not extensive in size
    • tooth anatomy or contour can be improved
    • proximal contact is present
    • restoration is intact; no fractures, open margins, or caries os present
    • the margin is accessible without damage to tissuee or adjacent tooth structures
  30. It is recommended that amalgam restorations be polished no sooner than _________ hours after insertion.
    24 hours
  31. List 10 equipment/supplies needed for the finishing and polishing procedure for amalgam restorations
    • mirror and explorer
    • air-water syringe
    • articulating paper
    • isolation materials
    • slow-speed handpiece and attachment
    • finishing burs, stones, disks, and cups
    • dappen dish
    • pumice
    • disposable rubber cup and brush
  32. Describe the first 3 steps in the finishing and polishing procedures for amalgam restorations.
    • examine cavosurface margins of entire restoration for excess material
    • check occlusion with articulating paper and clinically for premature occlusal contact
    • remove proximal cavosurface prematurities with an amalgam knife or a similar sharp instrument utilizing short, overlapping strokes
  33. In step 4 of finishing and polishing amalgam restorations, what should you use to isolate the restoration?
    • cottton rolls
    • saliva ejector
  34. In the 5th step of finishing and polishing amalgam restorations, which is polishing moving from most to least abrasive (brown first, then green, finally super, greenie) which stones are used for occlusal anatomy, and which ones for smooth surfaces?
    • pointed stones: occlusal
    • disk cup: smooth
  35. Describe steps 6 and 7 of finishing and polishing amalgam restorations.
    • use slow to moderate speed, always moving the stone from tooth to amalgam to prevent ditching the cavosurface margin
    • use a light sweeping motion while keeping the finishing instrument moving to avoid excessive heat and mercury vapor production
  36. Why is it important to rinse the area thoroughly when changing abrasives? (the 8th step in finishing and polishing amalgam restorations)
    to prevent the more abrasive particles from abrading the surface
  37. What is used to finish and polish amalgam restorations after the use of pointed stones and smooth cups? (step 9)
    rubber cup and brush with a slurry of pumic and then tin oxide
  38. describe steps 10 and 11 of polishing and finishing amalgam restorations.
    • keep the cup or brush (with pumice and tin oxide) in motion at all times using light intermittent strokes and moderate speed
    • rinse thoroughly between pumice and tin oxide
  39. What is used to polish proximal surfaces? (step 12 of finishing and polishing amalgam restorations)
    handheld finishing strip or pumice and dental tape
  40. List 10 equipment/supplies needed in the procedure for polishing a preexisting composite restoration.
    • mirror and explorer
    • air-water syringe
    • isolation materials
    • slow-speed handpiece and attachment
    • abrasive finishing disks
    • sterilizable mandrel
    • abrasive flexible wheels and points
    • polishing paste
    • rubber cup
  41. Describe the 4 steps in polishing a preexisting composite restoration.
    • examine restoration for staining: don't polish if no stain
    • isolate area with cotton rolls and saliva ejector
    • remove cavosurface flash with a sharp scaler
    • use in order coarse to fine abrasive diseks on a sterilizable mandrel or flexible wheels and rubber points, rinsing after each: light sweeping motion, keep rotary device moving always, finish with abrasiv paste on rubber cup
  42. What are the three steps in finishing and polishing composite restorations?
    • remove marginal and occlusal excess: with diamond or carbide finishing bur
    • intermdiate finishing: with flexible disks, cups, and strips, coarse to super fine
    • Final polishing: with submicron ALUMINUM OXIDE-based polishing paste applied with soft cups or felt pads
  43. true or false. Staining of margins of composites may not be polished away.
  44. Why is it undesireable to polish contact areas between teeth?
    because it might cause loss of the proximal contact
  45. In prophylaxis polishing and cleaning of composite restorations, you should avoid the use of what 3 things?
    • ultrasonic scalers
    • sonic scalers
    • air-polishing
  46. true or false. Only polish composite restorations if stain is present.
  47. what type of material is used in the prophylaxis polishing of composite restorations?
    aluminum oxide
  48. What are 2 steps in polishing resin-cement interfaces during oral prophylaxis?
    • check if 'staining' or 'microleakage' is present
    • if the stain is in the cement: treat it like a composite
  49. what 2 things should you not use in oral prophylaxis with implants? What 2 things are ok to use?
    • NO: abrasive-pastes or tin oxide
    • YES: plastic hand instruments or plastic sheaths on ultrasonic scalers
  50. What procedure uses a combination of sodium bicarbonate, air, and water, has a PSI (water pressure) of 40, and is good for polishing enamel?
    air polishing
  51. What 4 things should you avoid air polishing?
    • composite
    • porcelain
    • dentin
    • cementum
  52. What procedure uses aluminum oxide and compressed air, and removes minimal amounts of teeth and restorative structure, and has a PSI of40-160?
  53. What are 4 uses of microabrasion?
    • clean cast appliances before cementation
    • intraoral repair of porcelain and composites
    • tooth surface preparations before bonding
    • cut tooth structure for restoration
  54. What procedure is microabrasion NOT recommended for?
    stain removal
  55. aerosols are created with the use of rotary devices and moisture, what are 4 safety and infection control procedures to follow?
    • use protective equipment
    • protective eyewear for pt
    • pt antimicrobial rinses
    • high speed evacuation