Pharm: Thyroid and Osteoporosis

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Anonymous
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7801
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Pharm: Thyroid and Osteoporosis
Updated:
2010-02-22 23:57:36
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Nursing pharmacology thyroid osteoporosis
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Important points about drugs for thyroid disorders and osteoporosis
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  1. Levothyroxine (T4) & Liothyronine (T3) for hypothyroidism -- Dosing; DIs; Monitoring; AEs
    • Dosing: on empty stomach, 30 min before breakfast
    • DIs: 1. bile acid resins, sucralfate, antacids, mg salts, Fe supps, CATIONS decr T3/4 absorp. 2. Raloxifene - decr T3/4 absorp => incr dose; SPACE 12H. 3. Fx of warfarin enhanced. 4. Orlistat => hypoT - admin 4H apart. 5. T hormones incr cardiac response to catecholeamines => incr risk dysrhythmias.
    • Monitor: TSH 6-8 wks into treatment
    • AEs: **Acute OD = thyrotoxicosis**; chronic OD => incr bone loss & risk of afib
  2. Compare/Contrast Propylthiouracil (PTU) and Methimazole, both used for hyperthyroidism.
    • BOTH: inhibit thyr horm synth; can => agranulocytosis - do CBC w/ diff
    • PTU: Acts in periphery to suppress conversion of T4 => T3; if must, use THIS AGENT in preg
    • Methimazole: DOES NOT act in periph; DON'T use in preg or lact!
  3. How do bisphosphonates affect osteoporosis?
    Inhibit osteoclast activity => decr bone resorption and turnover
  4. What are the concerns with ALL bisphosphonates used to treat osteoporosis?
    • Esophagitis: take w/ full glass water; don't lie down 30-60min; completely empty stomach; watch out for other GI irritants
    • Osteonecrosis of the jaw
  5. Describe the differences in admin forms of the bisphosphonates: Alendronate, Risendronate, Ibandronate, Zoledronic Acid
    • Alendronate: multiple PO forms
    • Risendronate: multiple PO forms
    • Ibandronate: Daily and monthly PO; and IV!
    • Zoledronic Acid: ONLY IV!!
  6. Ibandronate and Zoledronic Acid (bisphosphonates) have unique characteristics. What are they?
    • Ibandronate: contraindicated in severe renal impairment (CrCl < 30); ONLY for treating postmenop osteoporosis
    • Zoledronic Acid: PT must be well-hydrated to prevent renal impair; contraindicated in hypocalcemia; give APAP or ibuprofen post-admin to minimize infus-induced HA, fever, muscle aches
    • Both: both have IV forms! (ZA is only IV)
  7. What agent for osteoporosis causes bone building?
    Teriparatide [Forteo]
  8. SERMs/Raloxifene: How do they work and what are their AEs and DIs?
    • Estrogen-like effect on bone: inhibits bone resorption and turnover
    • AEs: DVT, VTE, thrombosis, stroke => DO NOT USE w/ ESTROGEN; preg cat X
    • DIs: thyr horms - separate by 12H; bile acid resins - don't combo, may decr ralox
    • Also: in contrast to estrogen, raloxifene protects against endomet & breast cancer
  9. Calcitonin-Salmon [Miacalcin]: MoA? Admin? AEs? DIs?
    • MoA: 1. inhibits resorption; 2. inhib tub resorp Ca => incr excretion
    • Admin: intranasal, SQ, IM
    • AEs: hypersensitivity, flushed face/hands, nasal irrit/dryness
    • DIs: No signif ones!
  10. Teriparatide [Forteo]: MoA? Admin? AEs? DIs?
    • = ONLY drug that incr bone formation!
    • MoA: incr bone depos AND resorp
    • Admin: daily SQ
    • AEs: risk for osteosarcoma (Pagets) if @ risk; hyperuricemia; transient hypercalcemia; ortho hypo
    • DIs: digoxin => additive cardiotoxic fx
  11. Compare/Contrast the MoAs of agents for osteoporosis - bisphosphonates, SERMs (Raloxifene), Calcitonin-Salmon (Miacalcin), Teriparatide.
    • Bisphosphonates: decr bone resorption
    • SERMs (Ralox): estrogenic fx => inhib bone resorp
    • Calcitonin-Salmon (Miacalcin): inhib resorp, inhib tub resporp => incr excretion
    • Teriparatide [Forteo]: incr bone depos and resorp

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