Evolution

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Evolution
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2011-04-14 01:30:37
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Evolution
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  1. The assignment of species to higher categories based on their presumed evolutionary relationships
    Classification
  2. The most fundamental unit of classification is the ________.
    Species
  3. Members of Homo genus
    Homo sapiens, Homo erectus, Homo habilis
  4. Members of the Hominid family (3)
    Hominins, chimps, and gorillas
  5. Hominins (2)
    Genus Homo and Australopithecines
  6. Members of the Hominoid superfamily
    Hominids and the other apes
  7. Species and genera are commonly referred to as _____ _______.
    Lower taxa
  8. Categories above the genus
    Higher taxa
  9. system of rules for constructing a classification
    taxonomy
  10. Resemblance due to similar adaptation to shared environmental conditions
    analogies/convergences
  11. similarity due to common descent
    homology
  12. generalized characteristics that arose early in the evolutionary history of a taxonomic group
    primitive
  13. advanced characteristics that arose relatively late in members of a group and will differ among them
    derived
  14. derived features that demonstrate a special evolutionary tie among taxa that have them
    shared derived characteristics
  15. derived features that distonguish a taxon from all others
    unique derived features
  16. tree diagram that organizes taxa according to the number of derived features they share
    do not address time relationships or ancestor-vs-descendant relationships
    cladogram
  17. the smallest definable (mappable) unit of rock stratigraphy
    bed
  18. spatially and lithologically related bed are grouped into _____________
    members
  19. related members of stratigraphy are grouped into __________
    formations
  20. The smallest chronostratigraphic unit in common usage is the ______
    stage
  21. underlies the concept of stratigraphic units, and states that, all other things being equal, objects found in higher rock layers postdate (are younger than) objects found in deeper layers
    principle of stratigraphic superposition
  22. refers to the radioactivity in the burial environment, which is more difficult to estimate
    external dose rate
  23. refers to the radioactivity within the target being dated, which is readily estimated
    internal dose rate
  24. 2 most important nonradiometric numerical dating methods?
    tree-ring dating and varve dating
  25. distinctive band of sediment, often made up of two subbands, that is laid down each year on the floor of a lake or other relatively calm body of water
    varve
  26. reaction that produces the conversion of L (left-handed) to D (right-handed) amino acids after tissue death
    Racemization
  27. Dating method whose dates are less precise; a cross between numerical and relative dating
    Paleomagnetic stratigraphy
  28. Late Cenozoic cold periods, with greatly enlarged ice sheets
    Glacials
  29. Intervening warmer periods with reduced ice sheets (e.g. Holocene)
    Interglacials
  30. Naturally occurring, stable nonradioactive isotopes of oxygen, which foraminifera and other marine organisms extract from seawater and build into their shells' chemical content. Used to measure climatic change in sea sediment.
    Oxygen-16 and Oxygen-18
  31. lesser units of species in which most individuals find their mates
    demes/breeding populations
  32. spontaneous, chance change in the chemical
    structure of a gene, unusual, more likely to be harmful than helpful; much less
    potential to alter gene frequencies than natural selection
    Mutation
  33. change in gene frequencies due strictly to chance
    Random gene drift
  34. Fossils reveal only the _________ of an individual, which may change independently of the _________, and vice versa
    • Phenotype
    • Genotype
  35. lf a species expands into diverse environments, as
    many often have, or if environmental change physically separates populations of a single species, adaptation to local circumstances (NS) will cause the
    populations to diverge genetically
    Speciation/adaptive radiation
  36. Speciation and adaptive radiation theories assume ____________ in terms of change
    Anagenesis
  37. gradual change along separate branches of the
    evolutionary tree
    Anagenesis
  38. Type of evolution in which genetic change is relatively minor and occurs within separate breeding populations that continue to comprise a single species
    Microevolution
  39. Type of evolution in which genetic change is far more dramatic and ultimately produces separate species
    Macroevolution
  40. Rapid, abrupt change; often sparked by major climatic or environmental shifts (driven by natural selection)
    Usually occurs in small, isolated populations
    Punctuated equilibrium
  41. A phylogeny is to a species as a ___________ is to an individual
    Genealogy/family tree
  42. When classifying species, characters with a ________ distribution are more likely to reveal the basic evolutionary links among taxa in the group
    Limited
  43. Made up of any geological objects arranged in a
    sequence from younger to older
    Stratigraphy
  44. Stratigraphic units that include fossils, either floral or faunal
    Biostratigraphic units
  45. Stratigraphic units made of of human and prehuman fossils and artifacts
    Culture-stratigraphic units
  46. Most influential relative dating method that depends on chemical analysis
    Flourine method
  47. The study of what happens to an animal’s remains
    between the time it dies and the time it fossilizes
    Taphonomy
  48. Mechanism to explain biological change we see over time, one of the 4 main forces of evolution
    Natural selection
  49. 3 conditions of natural selection
    Variation in a trait (because one has to be advantageous over the other[s])

    Heritable

    • Differential reproductive success (competition,
    • survivorship, etc.)
  50. an individual’s ability to survive and produce
    offspring who themselves survive and reproduce
    Fitness
  51. Belief that geologic processes driving the natural world today are the same as those that drove it in the past
    Uniformitarianism
  52. Groups of actual or potentially interbreeding natural
    populations that are reproductively isolated from other groups
    Biological species concept
  53. Any factor preventing a male and female of 2 different species from hybridizing
    Reproductive Isolating Mechanism (RIM)
  54. Premating RIMs? (4)
    • Geographic isolation
    • Temporal isolation
    • Behavioral isolation
    • Mechanical incompatibility
  55. Postmating RIMs? (4)
    • Sperm-egg incompatibility
    • Zygote inviability
    • Embryonic or fetal inviability
    • Offspring viability and offspring sterility
  56. physical expression of a genotype (subject to both
    genetic and environmental influences)
    Phenotype
  57. genetic coding for a trait
    genotype
  58. discrete unit of inheritance
    gene
  59. a genotype variant
    allele
  60. an allele whose genotype is preferentially
    expressed in the presence of other allele variants
    Dominant
  61. an allele whose genotype expression is inhibited by the presence of a dominant allele
    Recessive
  62. Lessons from Mendel (3)
    • Genes are particulate (discrete particles)
    • One from each parent
    • Retain integrity generation after generation (don’t blend)
  63. Reasons for variation in gene expression (3)
    • Presence of other genes
    • Developmental timing (epigenetics)
    • Environmental factors (plasticity
  64. Forces of evolutionary change (4)
    • Natural selection
    • Mutation
    • Genetic drift
    • Gene flow
  65. evolutionary force that moves and spreads genetic material from one population to another of the same species; caused by migration
    gene flow
  66. random change in gene frequency within a population; occurs through the founder effect and genetic bottleneck
    random genetic drift
  67. only NEW source of genetic variation, mostly deleterious results, may be selected for by NS if it's beneficial
    mutation
  68. Source of genetic drift; in a population isolated from its parent pop, the new pop carries only the genetic variation within its founder ancestors (i.e. red hair and freckles in Irish pops)
    Founder effect
  69. 2 ways in which macroevolution can occur
    • Anagenesis
    • Cladogenesis
  70. evolution of a trait or species into another over
    multiple generations
    Anagenesis
  71. evolution through the branching off of a species or a lineage
    Cladogenesis
  72. Mode of speciation that is slow and incremental, with gradual change along separate branches of evolution; consistent with anagenesis; supported by Darwin's view
    Phyletic gradualism
  73. Problem with phyletic gradualism
    Doesn’t explain the pattern (that we tend to see) of abrupt appearance and disappearance typical in the fossil record
  74. Mode of speciation that involves rapid bursts of evolutionary change interspersed among long periods of stasis; consistent with cladogenesis; assumed to occur mostly in small/isolated populations where mutations can become easily fixed, and genetic drift is significant
    Punctuated equilibrium
  75. Sudden changes in new forms coinciding with climate
    change, consistent with punctuated equilibrium
    Turnover pulses
  76. Any geological objects that can be arranged in a
    sequence from older to younger
    Stratigraphic units
  77. Classification of lithostratigraphic units (rock layers)
    Bed > Member > Formation
  78. Dating methods that rely on constant processes well known to physics, chemistry, and biology to
    determine age in years (of either a fossil itself or the setting surrounding the fossil)
    Numerical/Absolute dating methods
  79. Relative dating methods (3)
    • Flourine Method
    • Stratigraphy
    • Biostratigraphic Dating
  80. Relative dating method that can test whether bones were buried contemporaneously, or came from different times but ended up in the same layer, using their measurement of flourine from ground water
    Flourine method
  81. Relative dating method that follows the principle of superposition, assuming deeper layers (and fossils within them) are older than more shallow layers, assumed no movement of layers
    Stratigraphy
  82. Relative dating method that uses dates of when certain known fossils lived to determine others; successful with microtine teeth of rodents in Europe, and some larger animals in Africa/Eurasia
    Biostratigraphic dating
  83. Pitfalls of stratigraphy (2)
    • Not all layers are horizontally aligned
    • Fossil material can move through geologic processes, burrowing animals, etc.
  84. Limit of the flourine method
    Cannot compare relative age across sites; must be from the same site
  85. Dating method that was used to expose the Piltdown Man as a hoax
    Flourine method
  86. Numerical dating method TYPES (2)
    • Radiometric
    • Nonradiometric
  87. Numerical dating methods that rely on the constant decay of radioactive isotopes into more stable forms
    Isotopic/radiometric methods
  88. Limitations of radiometric methods (2)
    Need specific types of bed material (i.e. volcanic rock)

    Resolution is limited to specific time periods due to rates of decay
  89. Radiometric dating method that is measured in volcanic ash and lava, has to do with cooling and heating events
    Has been important for establishing ages of rock layers
    Radiopotassium/Potassium-Argon Dating
  90. Radiometric dating method that uses glasses and minerals to determine dates of cooling and heating events, determined using ratio of density of tracks to the amount of Uranium-238 in the sample
    Fission-track dating
  91. Radiometric dating method that is most useful for dating sea and lake bottom sediments
    Dates climate events
    Corals are the most reliable form from which to obtain data
    Uranium-series dating
  92. Radiometric dating method that measures age by calculating the difference between the C14/C12 ratio in a sample of dead tissue and the C14/C12 ratio in the atmosphere
    The resulting difference is a function of the time since death
    Contamination and atmospheric CO2 make the method problematic; dates must be calibrated
    Radiocarbon dating
  93. Radiometric dating methods that measure the aggregate number of electrons that become trapped in crystalline substances from radioactive isotopes, as well as the rate that they accumulated, then dividing number over rate, to determine the last time the crystal traps were empty
    Use both heat and light analyses
    Luminescence/Electron Spin Resonance
  94. Nonradiometric numerical dating methods (3)
    Varve Analysis

    Tree-Ring dating

    Amino Acid Racemization
  95. Nonradiometric dating method that analyzes lake floor layers of sediment in calm waters; has a limited dateable range of 8-10,000 years; useful for tracing retreat Last Glaciation ice sheet, not so much for paleoanthropology
    Varve analysis
  96. Nonradiometric dating method that traces global shifts in polarity; useful for bracketing sites in time range when they can't be dated directly
    Paleomagnetic stratigraphy
  97. Radiometric dating method that was used to modern people in Israel from flint to 120-90 kya
    Electron Spin Resonance
  98. 2 segments of the skeleton
    • Cranium
    • Postcraium
  99. 3 sections of the cranium
    • Branicase/vault
    • Face/maxilla
    • Lower jaw/mandible
  100. Four basic types of permanent teeth in primates
    • Incisors
    • Canines
    • Premolars
    • Molars
  101. Term used to indicate the portion of a tooth nearer the cheek
    Buccal
  102. Term used to indicate the portion of a tooth nearer the tongue
    Lingual
  103. Term used to indicare the portion of a tooth nearer the front of the mouth
    Mesial
  104. Term used to indicate the portion of a tooth nearer the rear of the mouth
    Distal
  105. Closer to the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk
    Proximal
  106. Farther from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk
    Distal
  107. Toward or at the body surface
    Superficial
  108. Toward the head (2)
    Cranial, Superior
  109. Away from the body surface, more internal
    Deep
  110. portion of a bone closer to the midline of the body
    medial
  111. Portion of the bone further/away from the midline
    lateral
  112. Closer to the front of the body/toward the belly (2)
    Anterior/Ventral
  113. Closer to/toward the back of the body (2)
    posterior/dorsal
  114. hallux
    big toe
  115. pollex
    thumb
  116. friction ridges on on primates' tactile pads that facilitate grasping
    dermatoglyphs
  117. auditory bulla made up of the petrosal bone
    petrosal bulla
  118. Defining traits of primates (9)
    • Petrosal bulla
    • Complete postorbital bar
    • Grasping hands and feet with opposable thumb/toe
    • Nails instead of claws
    • Larger relative brain size, more complex
    • Decreased olfaction/reduced prognathism, smaller olfactory bulb
    • Increased vision
    • Dietary plasticity
    • Slow life histories with extended development
  119. Common traits of apes
    • No tail
    • Large body size
    • Short, broad trunk
    • Flexible shoulder joint
  120. Members of the strepsirhini semiorder
    Lemurs and lorises
  121. Members of the haplorhine semiorder (4)
    Tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans
  122. Suborders of Haplorhine semiorder (2)
    Tarsiiformes, Anthropoidea
  123. Members of the suborder Anthropoidea (2)
    monkeys and apes
  124. Infraorders of Anthropoidea (2)
    • Platyrrhines
    • Catarrhines
  125. Platyrrhines
    New World monkeys
  126. Catarrhines (2)
    • Old World Monkeys
    • Apes/Humans
  127. Superfamilies of Catarrhines (2)
    • Cercopithecoids
    • Hominoids
  128. Superfamily of Platyrrhines
    Cebids
  129. dry-nosed primates
    Haplorhines
  130. moist-nosed primates
    Strepsirhines
  131. Taxonomic division that includes members of two distinct evolutionary branches or clades
    Polyphyletic
  132. Taxonomic division that includes some, but not all, members of a single, deeper evolutionary clade
    Paraphyletic
  133. Superfamilies of Anthropoidea (3)
    • Hominoids (people and apes)
    • Cercopithecoids (OWMs)
    • Ceboids (NWMs)
  134. Shared derived traits of Old World Monkeys and Apes (3)
    • Dental formula
    • External auditory meatus
    • Complete closure of the bony wall behind the orbit
  135. Gap between the upper canine and upper lateral incisor, present in apes, in which the lower canine fits
    Diastema
  136. Method of estimating the time(s) when extant taxa last shared a common ancestor using their genes and proteins
    Biomolecular clock
  137. Nonflowering plants such as conifers, palms, and
    cycads
    Gymnosperms
  138. Flowering plants including trees, grasses, herbs,
    etc.
    Angiosperms
  139. Semiorder of Primates/euprimates that resembles the lemurs and lorises, likely diurnal, larger than their tarsier-like relatives
    Adapidiformes
  140. Semiorder of Primates/euprimates that resembles the tarsiers, likely nocturnal, small sized
    Omomyiformes
  141. rapid increase of many new species from a single lineage, each of which is characterized by distinct adaptations
    adaptive radiation
  142. Trait most widely used to distinguish fossils as anthropoids?
    Postorbital closure
  143. Oldest known skulls that exhibit postorbital closure (earliest known anthropoids) come from __________
    The Fayum Depression of Egypt
  144. Superfamilies Protopithecoidea, Parapithecoidea, and Propliopithecoidea may represent the first ___________ genera in the ____________ region
    Anthropoid, Fayum Depression
  145. Very small animals seen in China and Pakistan, 45 mya and 32 mya, whose anatomy of jaws/ankles/teeth suggest that they form the base of anthropoid radiation and that African anthropoids are descended from Asian populations
    Genus Eosimias
  146. Potential ancestor of New World Monkeys (Platyrrhines)?
    Proteopithecus
  147. Early Miocene hominoid fossil that was primitive enough to be on or near the line leading to most subsequent homoids, including the great apes and humans
    Proconsul
  148. Early Miocene hominoid fossil from Africa that had adaptations for suspensory locomotion and other great ape-like postcranial features, better great ape ancestor candidate than Proconsul
    Morotopithecus
  149. Apes evolved in _________, and moved into _________
    • Africa
    • Eurasia
  150. Miocene Eurasian ape (ancestor of modern apes) with a derived, apelike body, a shortened, inflexible waist skeleton, flat thorax, and long powerful arms/flexible shoulder joint
    Dryopithecus
  151. Chimpanzee-sized Miocene Eurasian ape with dental traits similar/possibly ancestral to Australopithecus (but likely to have been convergent evolution)
    Graecopithecus
  152. Late Miocene Eurasian ape (Asia) that was similar to the living orangutan, shared derived traits with Australipithecus
    BUT postcranials indicate it was a monkeylike quadruped
    Orangutan ancestor, not direct human (hominid) ancestor
    Tear-shaped orbits like orangs
    Sivapithecus
  153. Late Miocene Asian ape that was perhaps the largest that ever lived, terrestrial, some shared specializations with Australopithecus
    Gigantopithecus
  154. First fossil chimpanzee found in ____________
    Kapthurin Formation (Kenya)
  155. Away from the head, toward the tail (2)
    Caudal, inferior
  156. Towarrd the head (2)
    Cranial, Superior
  157. cheekbones
    zygomatic arches
  158. Upper jaw
    Maxilla
  159. Vertical part of the mandible
    Ramus
  160. Lower jaw
    Mandible
  161. Ear tube coming out of the ear from the auditory bulla, long in OWMs/apes; absent in NWMs
    Auditory/Ectotympanic tube
  162. Space for canines that also sharpens them, forms honing complex, lost in humans
    Diastema
  163. Trait shared by two or more taxa and their common ancestor (whose preceding ancestor did not have the trait)
    Synapomorphic trait
  164. Timing of first life on Earth
    3 bya
  165. 1st vertebrate emerged _________, during the ________ era
    4 mya, Paleozoic
  166. 1st mammal emerged _________, during the ________ era
    250 mya, Mesozoic
  167. 1st primate emerged __________ (plesiadapiforms, or pro-primates)
    65.5-60 mya
  168. 1st anthropoids (higher primates, monkeys and apes) emerged _________, during the _______ epoch
    35-30 mya, Oligocene
  169. 1st euprimates (true primates) emerged _______, during the ________ epoch
    50 mya, Eocene
  170. 1st ape (hominoid) emerged ___________, during the ________ epoch
    20-17 mya, Miocene
  171. LCA of chimps and humans split _________
    5-8 mya
  172. 1st hominins emerged _________, during the _______ epoch
    7-5 mya, Pliocene
  173. Anatomically modern Homo sapiens emerged _________, during the _________ epoch
    200 kya, Pleistocene
  174. Timespan of the Paleozoic Era
    570-225 mya
  175. Timespan of the Mesozoic Era
    225-65 mya
  176. Timespan of the Cenozoic Era
    65 mya - Present
  177. Epoch during which Homo sapiens appears
    Pleistocene
  178. Epoch when origins of agriculture and civilization occur
    Holocene
  179. Epoch of Hominoid radiation
    Miocene
  180. Primate-like mammals that evolved during the Paleocene in Europe and North America
    Plesiadapiforms
  181. Plesiadapiforms were like primates in their _______, but had non-primate features like __________ and lacked a _________
    • Postcranials
    • Claws
    • Postorbital bar
  182. Plesiadapiforms were adapted for the ________ lifestyle, with a __________ activity pattern and a ___________ locomotion pattern.
    • Arboreal
    • Nocturnal
    • Quadrupedal
  183. Plesiadapiforms had a ___________ olfactory system, and their teeth suggested they ate ________ and ________.
    • Developed
    • Seeds
    • Insects
  184. Plesiadapiform species whose features suggest it may be the first true primate and support the Angiosperm/Insectivory hypothesis of primate features' evolution
    Carpolestes simpsoni
  185. Carpolestes simpsoni had primate-like features, i.e. _____________, __________ and ____________.
    It was unlike primates in its ____________ and lack of ______________
    • Grasping hands and feet
    • Opposable big toe with nail
    • Frugivory

    • Claws on other digits
    • Orbital convergence
  186. Majority of early Miocene fossils belong to _________
    Proconsul
  187. Possible ancestors of NWMs that emerged in the late Oligocene (26-23 mya), suggesting African origins (but mysterious as OW and NW weren't connected then)
    Aegyptopithecus
  188. Apes evolved in ___________, and moved to ____________. Modern apes evolved from Miocene ___________ apes, implying a move back into ______________
    Africa, Eurasia; Eurasian; Africa
  189. sudden changes in new forms coinciding with
    climate change, consistent with punctuated equilibrium
    Turnover pulses
  190. Proconsul had ___________ prognathism, ________ brain size, and __________ dentition that suggested it was __________
    • Little
    • Large
    • Generalized
    • Frugivorous
  191. Most primate-like (but non-primate) mammals
    Insectivorous, arboreal
    Ancestral to earliest primates
    Used as an outgroup to the earliest primates
    (comparison animal)
    Tree shrews/Tupaiiformes
  192. Theory of primate featural evolution that was a spin-off of the arboreal hypothesis; predicted that primates' orbital convergence developed for stereoscopic vision and predatory success, and that their nails and grasping adapted for catching insects
    Visual Predation Hypothesis
  193. Theory of primate featural evolution that says evolved their grasping ability first, to deal with the arboreal environment and exploit new angiosperms, and that orbital convergence came later as an adaptation for insectivory
    Angiosperm Exploitation/Insectivory
  194. Theory of primate featural evolution that says that since the earliest primates evolved during angiosperm radiation, they developed enhanced color vision to discriminate ripe fruits from unripe ones; and that grasping evolved to exploit unreachable fruits
    Terminal Branch Feeding/Angiosperm Exploitation Hypothesis
  195. A group that shares one common ancestor
    Monophyletic
  196. A group that shares more than one common ancestor
    Paraphyletic

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