APUSH Exam Study Cards

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APUSH Exam Study Cards
2011-04-07 02:09:07
AP United States History Jackson Age Civil War

Jackson Age - Civil war
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  1. Adams-Onis Treaty
    remainder of Florida sold by Spain to US, boundary of Mexico defined
  2. Monroe Doctrine
    Europeans should not interfere with affairs in Western Hemisphere, Americans to stay out of foreign affairs; supported Washington’s goal for US neutrality in Americas
  3. Election of 1824
    “corrupt bargain” and backroom deal for JQ Adams to win over Jackson
  4. Worcester v. Georgia
  5. Georgia cannot enforce American laws on Indian tribes
  6. National Road
    (Age of Jackson (1820-1850))
    part of transportation revolution, from Cumberland MD to Wheeling WVa, toll road network; stimulated Western expansion
  7. Nullification Controversy
    southern states (especially South Carolina) believed that they had the right to judge federal laws unconstitutional and therefore not enforce them
  8. Marshall Court (all cases)
  9. Marbury v. Madison (judicial review), McChulloch v. Maryland (loose Constitutionalinterpretation, constitutionality of National Bank, states cannotcontrol government agencies), Gibbons v. Ogden (interstatecommerce controlled by Congress), Fletcher v. Peck (valid contractcannot be broken, state law voided), Dartmouth College v.Woodward (charter cannot be altered without both parties’ consent)
  10. Burned-Over District
    heavily evangelized to the point there were no more people left to convert to other religions, upstateNew York, home to the beginning of Smith’s Mormonismmovement
  11. Seneca Falls Convention of 1848
    for women’s rights, organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, modeled requests after the Declaration of Independence
  12. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    organized Seneca Falls Convention, founded (with Anthony) National Women Suffrage Organization
  13. Angelina and Sarah Grimké
    fought for women’s rights and abolition, “Men and women are CREATED EQUAL!”
  14. Dorothea Dix
    worked towards asylums for the mentally insane, worked alongside Mann
  15. John Humphrey Noyes/Oneida Community
    John Noyes, New York; utopian society for communalism, perfectionism, and complex marriage
  16. New Harmony
    first Utopian society, by Robert Owen
  17. Hudson River School
    American landscape painting rather than Classical subjects
  18. Transcendentalism
    founded by Emerson, strong emphasis on spiritual unity (God, humanity, and nature), literature with strong references to nature
  19. • Henry David Thoreau(Walden and On Civil Disobedience)
    in Brook Farm Community, lived in seclusion for two years writing Walden, proved that man could provide for himself without materialistic wants Slavery and Sectionalism (1845-1860)
  20. Nat Turner’s Rebellion
    Nat Turner led a slave rebellion in Virginia, attacked many whites, prompted non-slaveholding Virginians to consider emancipation
  21. Yeoman Farmers
    family farmers who hired out slaves for the harvest season, self-sufficient, participated in local markets alongside slave owners
  22. “Wage slaves”
    northern factory workers who were discarded when too old to work (unlike the slaves who were still kept fed and clothed in their old age)
  23. Nativism
    anti-immigrant, especially against Irish Catholics
  24. Stephen Austin
    American who settled in Texas, one of the leaders for Texan independence from Mexico
  25. James K. Polk
    • “dark horse” Democratic candidate; acquired majority of the western US (Mexican Cession, Texas Annexation,
    • Oregon Country), lowered tariffs, created Independent Treasury
  26. Oregon and “Fifty-four Forty or Fight!”
    Oregon Territory owned jointly with Britain, Polk severed its tie to Britain, forced to settle for compromise south of 49° rather than 54°40’
  27. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    acquired Mexican Cession (future California, Arizona, and New Mexico); Mexico acknowledged American annexation of Texas
  28. Wilmot Proviso
    slavery to be barred in all territory ceded from Mexico; never fully passed Congress
  29. William Seward
    Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson; purchase of Alaska “Seward’s Folly”
  30. Compromise of 1850
  31. 1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico,(3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federalassumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6)new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A.Douglas
  32. Know-Nothing (American) Party
    opposed to all immigration, strongly anti-Catholic
  33. Kansas-Nebraska Act
    • territory split into Kansas and Nebraska, popular sovereignty (Kansas slave, Nebraska free); proposed by
    • Stephen A. Douglas
  34. Lecompton Constitution
    proslavery constitution in Kansas, supported by Buchanan, freesoilers against it (victorious), denied statehood until after secession
  35. John Brown
    led Pottawatomie Massacre, extreme abolitionist who believed he was doing God’s work
  36. Pottawatomie Creek (May 1856)
    John Brown and his sons slaughtered five men as a response to the election fraud in Lawrence and the caning of Sumner in Congress
  37. Republican Party
    formed in response to Kansas-Nebraska Act, banned in the South, John C Fremont first presidential candidate
  38. Harpers Ferry (1859)
    Brown aimed to create an armed slave rebellion and establish black free state; Brown executed and became martyr in the North
  39. Dred Scott v. Sandford
    slaves could not sue in federal courts (blacks no longer considered citizens), slaves could not be takenfrom masters except by the law, Missouri Compromiseunconstitutional, Congress not able to prohibit slavery in a state
  40. Freeport Doctrine
    Douglas was able to reconcile the Dred Scott Decision with popular sovereignty; voters would be ableto exclude slavery by not allowing laws that treated slaves asproperty
  41. 20-Negro Law
    exempted those who owned or oversaw twenty or more slaves from service in the Confederate Army; “rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight”
  42. Anaconda plan
    the Union planned a blockade that would not allow supplies of any sort into the Confederacy; control the Mississippi and Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico
  43. Ulysses S. Grant
    • won battles in the West and raised northern morale (esp. Shiloh, Fort Henry, and Fort Donelson), made Union
    • commanding general
  44. William T. Sherman
    pushed through northern Georgia, captured Atlanta, “march to the sea” (total war and destruction), proceeded to South Carolina
  45. Robert E. Lee
    opposed to slavery and secession, but stayed loyal to Virginia, despite offer for command of Union Army