3rd Quarter AP Bio Words

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3rd Quarter AP Bio Words
2011-04-07 02:14:15
Heredity DNA synthesis Evolution some plants

Heredity, DNA synthesis, Evolution, some plants
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    • author "me"
    • tags "DNA replication, natural selection, evolution"
    • description ""
    • fileName "3rd Quarter AP Bio Words"
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    • Nondisjunction
    • An error in meiosis mitosis, in which both members of a pair of homologous chromosome or both sister chromatids fail to move apart properly
  1. Linked gene
    Genes located close enough together on a chromosome to be usually inherited together
  2. Sex-linked gene
    A gene located on a sex chromosome
  3. Aneuploidy
    A chromosomeal aberration in which one or more chromosome ...
  4. Transformation
    • 1) the conversion of normal animal cell to cancerous cell
    • 2) a change in phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell
  5. Helicase
    An enzyme that untwists the helix of DNA at the replication fork
  6. Leading strand
    The continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' ---> 3' direction
  7. Lagging strand
    A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork
  8. Operon
    A unit of genetic function common in bacteria and phages, consisting of coordinately regulated clusters of genes with related functions
  9. Regulatory gene
    A gene that codes for a protein such as a repressor, that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes
  10. Cell differentiation
    The structural and functional divergence of cells as the become specialized during a multicellular organism's development; dependent on the control of gene expresssion
  11. Induction
    The ability of on group of embroyonic cells to influence the development of another
  12. Recombinant DNA
    The DNA molecule made in vitro with segment from different sources
  13. Plasmid
    A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome; also found in some eukaryotes, such as yeast
  14. Cloning vector
    An agent used to transfer DNA in genetic engineering. A plasmid that moves recombinant DNA from a test tube back into a cell is an example of a cloning vecotr, as is a virus that transfers recombinant DNA by infection
  15. Transgenic
    Pretaining to an individual plant or animal whose genome contains a gene introduced from another organism, either from the same or different species
  16. Gel electrophoresis
    The separation of nucleic acid or proteind, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field of gel
  17. Genomics
    The study of whole sets of genes and their interations
  18. Bioinformantics
    Using ampoting power, software, and mathematical models to process and integrate biological information from large data sets
  19. Proteomics
    The systematic study of the full protein sets (proteomes) encoded by genomes
  20. Natural selection
    Differential sucess in the reproduction different phenotypes resulting from the interaction of organisms with their environment. Evolution occurs when natural selection causes charges in relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool
  21. Homologous structure
    Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry
  22. Vestigal structures
    A structure of marginal, if any, important to an organism. Historical remnants of structures that had important functions in ancestors
  23. Convergent evolution
    The evolution of similar features in independent evolutionary lineages
  24. Directional selection
    Natural selection that favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range
  25. Disruptive selection
    Natural selection that favors individuals on both extremes of a phenotypic range over intermediate phenotypes
  26. Stabilizing selection
    Natural selection that favors intermediate variants
  27. Microevolution
    Evolutionary change below the species level; change in genetic make up of a population from generation to generation
  28. Phylogeny
    The evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
  29. Gametophyte
    In organisms undergoing alteration of generations, the multicellularhaploid form that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation
  30. Sporophyte
    In organisms undergoing alteration of generations, the multicellular diploid form that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation