2nd semester AP Bio cards

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2nd semester AP Bio cards
2011-04-07 02:17:10
cellular respiration some genetics plant stuff

cellular respiration, some genetics, some plant stuff
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    • author "me"
    • fileName "2nd semester cards"
    • tags ""
    • description "Bio"
    • Heterozygous
    • Having 2 different alleles for a given gene
  1. Homozygous
    Having identical alleles for a give gene
  2. Allele
    Alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects
  3. Recombiant chromosome
    A chromosome created when crossing over combines the DNA from two parents into a single chromosome
  4. Autosome
    A chromosome that is not directly involved in the determining the sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome
  5. Feedbook inhibition
    A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme with the pathway
  6. Homologous chromosomes
    Chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess allels of the same genes at corresponding log. One of the homologous chromosome in inherited from the organisms father, the other from the mother
  7. Clone (1&2)
    • 1) a lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells
    • 2) in popular usage, a single individual organism that is genetically identical to another individual
  8. Somatic cell
    Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell
  9. Gamate
    A haploid cell, such as an egg or sperm. Gamates unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote
  10. Gene
    A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)
  11. Heredity
    The transmittion of traits from one generation to the next
  12. Carotenoid
    An accessory pigmint, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wave lengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis
  13. Chlorophyll
    A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants. Chlorophyll "a" can participate directly in the light reactions which convert solar energy to chemical energy
  14. Alcohol fermentation
    The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol
  15. Lactic acid fermentation
    The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide
  16. Obligate anaerobe
    An organism that cannot use oxygen and is poisened by it
  17. Induced fit
    The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more slowly to the substrate, induced by entry of the substrate
  18. Facultative anaerobe
    An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present by that switched to fermentation under anaerobic conditions