Pathology

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
7804
Filename:
Pathology
Updated:
2010-02-23 00:43:15
Tags:
NBDE Pathology
Folders:

Description:
NBDE Pathology
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What is a hemangioma?
    A benign self-involuting tumor of endothelial cells with unknown cause

    most common tumor in infancy

    "blood vessel tumor"
  2. Bruton's Agammaglobunemia
    • - B cell deficiency because failure to mature
    • - Bacterial and fungal infections increased
    • - Boys
    • - mutation on X chromosome (mutation in B cell tyrosine kinase)
    • - primary immunodeficiency disease that is congenital
  3. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome
    • Increased IgA, IgE, low IgM
    • - only in Boys

    • - WIPE:
    • 1) Wiskott
    • 2) recurrent pyogenic Infections
    • 3) thrombocytopenic Purpura
    • 4) Eczema
    • - also incrased risk of lymphoid cancers
  4. Ataxia-Telangiectasia
    • - inherited disorder affects many tissues
    • - defect in DNA repair enzymes results in IgA deficiency

    • 1) telangiectasis- dilation of capillaries; on whites of eyes and skin areas
    • 2) ataxia- uncoordinated movements in late childhood
    • - increased risk of malignancies
  5. Job Syndrome aka Hyper IgE syndrome
    • - immunodeficiency disorder
    • - decrease activation of PMNs bc Th cells don't produce interferon-gamma (activates macrophages and CD8+ Tc cells)

    • - The Jobs of PMN's depends on FATE
    • 1) Facies
    • 2) Abscesses from S. aureus
    • 3) primary Teeth retained
    • 4) high igE and Eczema
  6. Lambert-Eaton Syndrome
    • - NMJ disease
    • - autoantibodies to Ca2+ channels on presynaptic nerve--> decreases Ach release
    • - Sx: proximal muscle weakness
    • - symptoms improve w/ muscle use
  7. What is Osteochondrosis?

    Characteristic Sites?
    • - during rapid bone growth, blood supply to epipheses of bones insufficient
    • - get necrotic bone near joints= avascular necrosis

    - the degeneration and aseptic necrosis followed by regeneration and reossification of 1+ ossification centers in children

    • 1) head of femur- Legg-Calve-Perthes disease
    • 2) Tibial tuberosity- Osgood-Schlatter
    • 3) Intervertebral joints- Scheuermann disease
  8. Gardner's Syndrome
    - Autosomal dominant polyposis syndrome


    • 1) adenomatous polyps
    • 2) bone and skin tumors
    • - risk of malignant transformation 100%
  9. Turcot's Syndrome
    - Autosomal recessive

    • 1) adenomatous polyps
    • 2) brain tumors

    - high risk of malignant transformation
  10. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
    - Autosomal dominant


    • 1. Polyps of colon and small intestine
    • 2. melanotic macules on lips, hands, genitalia

    • - no malignant potential of polyps themselves
    • - increases risk for adenocarcinoma of colon, stomach, breast, lung, ovaries
  11. What is Histiocytosis X?

    Three Types?

    Which has the worse prognosis?
    • - Langerhans cell histiocytosis
    • - Langerhans cells increase in # and invade body tissues
    • - unknown cause

    mnemonic: Enduring Histiocytes Live

    • 1. Eosinophilic Granuloma
    • - mild/benign form
    • - solitary lesion on bone--> pain and swelling
    • - 80% of histiocytosis X
    • - in children 5-10 yrs

    • 2. Hand-Christian- Schuller Disease
    • - children ages 1-3 w/ classic triad:
    • 1) skull lesions
    • 2) diabetes insipidis
    • 3) exophthalmos

    • 3. Letterer-Siwe Disease
    • - very aggressive, fatal ending
    • - multiple organ systems involved: bone, lungs, skin, liver, spleen, bone marrow
    • - age 0-1 yr
    • - worst prognosis- depends on age at diagnosis (<2 yrs worse) and how many organs involved
  12. Polyarteritis nodosa
    • - collagen vascular disease
    • - blood vessel disease w/ unknown cause
    • - necrotizing immune complex inflammation of small and medium sized arteries
    • - associated with HEP B infection
  13. Cause of dermatomyositis?
    - unknown cause, but damage to myofibers by CD8+ T cells


    • 1) proximal muscle weakness
    • 2) malar rash (similar to SLE) heliotrope rash

    • - increased risk of malignancy
    • - finding: + ANA, anti-Jo1

    - similar to polymyositis (but no rash)
  14. Most common tumor of salivary glands?
    Where?

    Most common malignancy of salivary glands?
    • Pleomorphic (mixed) adenoma
    • -Parotid Gland> submandibular > Sublingual
    • - plasmacytoid cells are diagnostic

    • Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma
    • - mucous secreting cells and and epithelial cells
    • - accompanied by pain
    • - may show damage to CN VII
  15. Ludwig's angina


    • - life-threatening cellulitis infection of floor of mouth; usually in dental infection
    • - angina= severe pain
    • - usually from infection of mandibular molars
    • - mixed infection- usually Streptococci always present

    • 1) brawny/muscular induration that doesn't pit on pressure
    • 2) rapid onset
    • 3) Dysphagia, dyspnea, fever

    • - EMERGENCY when swelling blocks airway
    • - Tx- get rid of infection w/ antibiotics (penicillin)
  16. 1. Acute Appendicitis signs and symptoms?

    2. Most common neoplasm of appendix
    • - most common emergency surgical procedure
    • - most common in 10-19 yr olds

    • Clinical Signs:
    • 1. child walks bent over, limping, holding right side
    • 2. diffuse abdominal tenderness
    • 3. McBurney's point
    • - point tenderness
    • - rebound tenderness- indicates inflammation spread to peritoneum

    Tx- surgical removal

    2. carcinoid tumor- rarely metastasizes
  17. 1. Most common cause of meningitis is adults?

    2. In children under 2?

    3. Signs and Symptoms

    4 What is Waterhouse Friederichsen syndrome?
    1. N. Meningitidis and S. Pneumoniae

    2. H. Influenzae

    3. high fever, stiffness of neck, severe headache bc inflammation of meninges

    • 4. rapid infection by N. meningitidis
    • - diarrhea
    • - vomiting
    • - bilateral adrenal hemorrhage--> low BP, shock, seizures
    • - death
  18. Amyloidosis

    1. Primary

    2. Secondary

    3. Hereditary
    proteinaceous material (amyloid) deposits and accumulates in tissues and organs

    • 1. unknown cause
    • - malignant plasma cells abnormally produce a lot of Ig's that accumulate and deposit onto tissues
    • - systemic: HEART, lungs, skin, tongue, thyroid gland, intestines, liver, kidney, blood vessels
    • - e.g. Multiple Myeloma (CRAB- hypercalcemia, renal disease, Anemia, Bone pain)

    • 2. reactive; complication of other diseases (TB, rheumatoid arthritis, etc)
    • - heart rarely involved

    3. rare; genetic mutations
  19. Down Syndrome
    - Trisomy 21 chromosomal abnormality

    • - mental retardation
    • - large protruding tongue
    • - small ears, large forehead, wide space eyes
    • - simean crease; short, broad hands

    • Complications
    • - congenital heart disease
    • - increased infections
    • - ALL (we ALL fall DOWN)
    • - increased Alzheimers
  20. Cri Du Chat Syndrome
    - Chromosome 5 short arm deletion

    • 1. severe mental retardation
    • 2. microcephaly
    • 3. catlike cry
  21. Edward's Syndrome
    - Trisomy 18

    • 1. mental retardation
    • 2. pinched face appearance
    • 3. micrognathia (Small jaw)
    • 4. small head w/ low set ears
    • 5. congenital heart disease
  22. Patau Syndrome
    -Trisomy 13

    • 1. mental retardation
    • 2. microcephaly
    • 3. microphthalmia
    • 4. Cleft lip and Palate
    • 5. congenital heart disease
    • 6. polydactyly (extra fingers)

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview