The Need For Food

The flashcards below were created by user crobertsonx on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Food is needed by animals for:
    a) ______, as an immediate source and longer term energy store.
    b) ______ and ______ of damaged cells and tissues
    • a) energy
    • b) growth and repair
  2. There are three main food types:
    a) _____________, which can be divided into starches and sugars
    b) ____
    c) ________
    • a) carbohydrates
    • b) fats
    • c) proteins
  3. The chemical elements present in carbohydrates are:
    ______, ________ and ______
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
  4. The chemical elements present in fats are:______, ________ and ______
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
  5. The chemical elements present in proteins are:______, ________, ______ and ________
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
  6. The basic building blocks of carbohydrates are simple sugars, like ________. Carbohydrates may also be complex molecules like ______.
    • glucose
    • starch
  7. Image Upload
    Glucose molecules
  8. Image Upload
    starch molecules
  9. Image Upload
    individual animo acids
  10. Image Upload
    protein molecule
  11. Proteins are large molecules made up of long chains of _____ _____ joined together.
    Amino acids
  12. A fat molecule consists of three _____ _____ joined to a ________ molecules in the shape of a letter E.
    • fatty acids
    • glycerol
  13. Image Upload
    Fat molecule
  14. Digestion is the breakdown of _____ particles of food into ______ particles so that they can be ________ into the blood through the wall of the small intestine.
    • large
    • smaller
    • absorbed
  15. During digestion large ________ food particles into smaller ________ food particles.
    • insoluble
    • soluble
  16. Teeth are involved in the _________ __________ of food.
    mechanical breakdown
  17. Incisors are ______ shaped for _______ and _______
    • chisel
    • cutting
    • biting
  18. Canine are _____ pointed for _______, _______ and holding ____
    • sharp
    • gripping
    • piercing
    • prey
  19. molars and premolars are large teeth with ______ surfaces for _______ and _______ food.
    • ridged
    • crushing
    • grinding
  20. An animals _________ is the number and type of teeth that it possesses. This depends on what type of food the animal eats.
    dentition
  21. A herbivore is an animal that eats _____.
    plants
  22. A carnivore is an animal that eats _______
    animals
  23. An omnivore is an animals that eats _____.
    both, animals and plants
  24. The digestive system consists of the gut running from the _____ to the ____.
    • mouth
    • anus
  25. Saliva
    salivary glands
  26. gastric juices
    stomach
  27. pancreatic juice
    pancreas
  28. bile
    liver
  29. intestinal juice
    small intestine
  30. _________ is the name given to the muscular contractions of the gut wall.
    peristalsis
  31. During peristalsis circular muscles in the gut wall _______ behind the food while the muscles in front of the the food _____. This pushes the food along the gut.
    • contract
    • relax
  32. The muscular contractions of the stomach wall help to mix the food with the gastric juice. This _____ __ the chemical breakdown of the food.
    speeds up
  33. Digestive enzymes are chemicals which breakdown the large molecules of carbohydrates, proteins and fats down into
    thier smaller sub-units.
  34. ______ enzymes act on carbohydrates, ________ enzymes act on proteins while ______ enzymes act of fats.
    • Amylase
    • protease
    • lipase
  35. _______ enzymes are responsible for the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins and fats
    Different
  36. The ________ is the substance an enzyme acts on
    substrate
  37. The ________ are the substrates produced at the end of the reaction.
    products
  38. Enzyme- Amylase
    Substrate- Starch
    Product-
    Maltose
  39. Enzyme- Protease
    Substrate- Protein
    Product-
    Amino Acids
  40. Enzyme- Lipase
    Substrate- Fats
    Product-
    Fatty Acids and Glycerol
  41. Main functions of the small intestine:
    - to _________ digestion
    - to ______ the digested foods across the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream
    • complete
    • absorb
  42. The small intestine has a ____ _____ _______ ____
    very large surface area
  43. The surface area is very very large because the small intestine is very ____. The internal lining is ______ and has thousands of tiny _____ present.
    • long
    • folded
    • villi
  44. The small intestine's internal lining is very ___ which allows digested foods to pass through into the blood _____ and _______
    • thin
    • easily
    • quickly
  45. The small intestine has a very ____ _____ ______ which absorbs food _______ and carries it away quickly to the rest of the body.
    • rich blood supply
    • rapidly
  46. The _____ are well adapted for the absorption and transport of food.
    villi
  47. Villi have a ____ _____, which allows digested food to pass through _______
    • thin lining
    • quickly
  48. Villi have a large network of _____ ________ into which ______ and _____ _____ are absorbed and then carried away quickly
    • blood capillaries
    • glucose
    • amino acids
  49. Villi have a _______ into which digested fats are absorbed.
    lacteal
  50. In a lacteal, fats are then quickly transported away in the _________ ______ and are eventually emptied into the bloodstream.
    lymphatic system
  51. Any undigested food material passes from the end of the ________ into the _______
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
  52. The undigested material passes along the large intestine then _____ is absorbed from it.
    water
  53. The faeces is stored in the ______ until it is passed out of the body through the ____
    • rectum
    • anus
Author:
crobertsonx
ID:
78061
Card Set:
The Need For Food
Updated:
2011-04-07 14:45:45
Tags:
Need Food Animal Survival Biology crobertsonx
Folders:

Description:
Biology, Animal Survival, Subtopic
Show Answers: