Psychiatric Medication

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sojialiu
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78090
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Psychiatric Medication
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2011-04-07 12:45:26
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Psychiatric Medication
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Psychiatric Medication
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  1. Antipsychotic Medication
    called neuroleptics . Used to treat psychotic symptoms.
  2. psychotic symptoms
    • hallucinations and delusions-mostly
    • Disorganized orincoherent speech,
    • Confused thinking,
    • Strange, possibly dangerous behavior, Bizarre behavior,
    • Slowed or unusual movements,
    • Loss of interest in personal hygiene
    • Loss of interest in activities.
  3. Antipsychotic Medication use
    • Schizophrenia
    • Bipolar – the manic phase
    • Agitation
  4. Mode of Action of Antipsychotic medication
    • Block the dopamine receptors in the brain thereby reduce the psychotic symptoms.
    • Also blocks chemoreceptors, trigger zone and the vomiting center in the brain thereby producing antiemetic effect
  5. Typical and Atypical
    2 types Antipsychotic
  6. Typical Antipsychotic
    traditional mainstay of antipsychotic treatment
  7. Atypical Antipsychotic
    The atypical (or "novel") neuroleptics, also known as the "newer" drugs. It is more expensive but with less side effect.
  8. Side effect of Antipsychotic medication
    • Anticholinergic effect
    • Sedation
    • Decrease in sexual interest or ability
    • Photosensitivity
    • Liver problem
    • Weight gain
    • Change color of urine pink or orange
    • Agranulocytosis
    • Extrapyramidal Syndrome
    • Tardive dyskinesia
    • Parkinsonism
    • Dystonia
    • Akathisia
  9. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
    is a neurological disorder most often caused by an adverse reaction to neuroleptic or antipsychotic drugs.
  10. General Nursing Intervention on patient taking Antipsychotic
    • Monitor vital signs closely
    • Monitor serum glucose level
    • Administer medication with food and milk to decrease gastric irritation
    • The important of taking medication on time and avoid stopping medication abruptly
  11. Anti-Anxiety Drugs: Minor tranquilizers
    Antianxiety drugs are medicines that calm and relax people with excessive anxiety, nervousness, or tension, or for short-term control of phobia disorder
  12. Types of Antianxiety
    benzodiazepam
  13. Antidote to Benzodiazepine
    Flumazenil
  14. Medication for Insomnia and Anxiety
    They act by depressing the reticular activating system (RAS)which is the part of the brain responsible for awake and motivation.
  15. 3 main factor all working in concert to cause depression
    biological, genetic, and environmental factors
  16. Tricyclic Antidepressant
    act by blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at the presynaptic neuron thereby making them more available.
  17. Tricyclic Antidepressant
    • Must not be used with alcohol or antihistamine
    • (cough mix) as they will cause severe CNS depression.
    • Must not be used along with MAOI as they cause
    • hypertensive crisis
    • They may cause reduction in the effectiveness of
    • antihypertensive medication
  18. Monoamines Oxidase Inhibitors MAOI Side Effect
    • Sedation-leading to drowsiness,
    • Orthostatic hypotension
    • Hypertensive crisis
    • Erectile dysfunction
    • orgasm difficulty
    • Anticholinergic manifestation
    • Insomnia- especially -Parnate
    • Weight gain
  19. Monoamines Oxidase Inhibitors MAOI
    acts on CNS by increasing concentration of epinephrine, serotonin and dopamine
  20. Antidote for the hypertensive crisis
    Phentolamine (Regitine)
  21. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
    It produces antidepressant effect by inhibiting serotonin uptake and destruction thereby making more serotonin available.
  22. For patient on SSRI-prozac instruct
    them to take medication early in the day to avoid sleep disturbance at night.
  23. Anti-manic Drug (Mood Stabilizer)
    drug used in the treatment of manic phase of bipolar
  24. Lithium Carbonate
    most effective in the treatment of mania.
  25. Lithium narrow therapeutic range
    0.6-1.2 mEq/liter
  26. side effects of Antianxiety drugs
    sedation, drowsiness
  27. side effects of Antidepressant drugs
    • anti-cholinergic effects
    • postural hypotension.
  28. specific problems or concerns for drug therapy Lithium
    requires renal function assessment and monitoring of blood level
  29. specific problems or concerns for drug therapy Phenothiazines
    cause extrapyramidal effects (EPS);
  30. specific problems or concerns for drug therapy Tardive dyskinesia
    can be permanent if client is not assessed regularly for signs of tardive dyskinesia!
  31. specific client teaching for drug therapy Phenothiazines
    photosensitivity, need to wear protective clothing, sunglasses.
  32. specific client teaching for drug therapy MAO inhibitors
    dietary restrictions to prevent hypertensive crisis.

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