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the annexation of Austria- Germany annexed them in 1938 because they wanted their territory-they claimed there was a greater German race in Austria so it was theirs anyway…Austrians liked being annexed, greeted Hitler with open arms. The rest of the world did not really care, they wanted to stay out of war, and so they remained empathetic marks the beginning of WW2 German imperialism
- after WW2, the economy was restored, the soldiers came home from war and made babies-Germany also had a baby boom in the late fifties because they were still rebuilding after the war-it is currently putting a
- stress on our economy though because there is a surplus of people retiring-I Love Lucy- the main focus was family and consumerism…the babies that were born during the first boom grew up to rebel
Battle of the Somme
WW1 Hitler fought in the war…1.5 million causalities…one of the bloodiest battles of all time…for the first time psychological effects of the war are being seen…Hitler later talks about this
Polish Sociologist: linked Holocaust to modernity… the holocaust is the consequence of modern thought.
Romanian dictator was accused of murdering and torturing thousandsof people he refused to give up his power and he was kidnapped byrevolutionaries…he was executed by Romanian revolutionaries (video recorded); whowere pro democratic…after the fall of the Berlin wall; Violent Revolution (onlyviolent one)
- nuclear reactor meltdown
- April 26, 1986
- Ukraine- part of USSR at time
- Nuclear spread- Spilled all the way
- into Sweden
- “Glasnost”: action of “openness”
- one of the things that accelerated
- political economic restructuring
- remodeling of the politicaland economic structure of the Soviet Union under Gorbachev. Underthis remodeling: allowed for members to be elected into government,allowed foreign investments, and allowed freedom to travel (freemovement across borders). The remodeling made communism more relaxed.It became a society where people were not suppressed
Prime minister of Great BritainNightly radio addresses to keep upmoral and hope of all the people during warVoted out of his position while he wasin POTSDAM (at elections back in England) given signatures on menu by Stalin
Collectivization (1920s -1930s)
- Stalin (government) take over farms
- Gov't. gave technology to farms
- *More than just farms: Private Propertywas ILLEGAL (homes, businesses, etc.)
- The Great Hunger: food productiondropped 50% but exports stayed the same
Cuban Missile Crisis
- October 1962 (13 day standoff)
- “response” to Bay of Pigs
- Cubans living in the US were organizedand backed by US Army & CIA
- Attempt at coup de tat
- Both sides backed down, us removed nuclear warheads from Turkey and USSR removed their nuclear weapons nearby.
- DuringWWII, France and Britain wanted their colonies to fight for them against the Nazi’s,
- and the colonies only did that because theywere offered freedom if they fought,
- when France and Britaindidn’t hold up to their end, the colonies fought for theirindependence.
- When the colonies gained independence probles with flag ind vs econ ind.
Displaced Persons (specifically,problem after WWII)
- “ppl who aren't in their homeland”(soldiers, colonial soldiers, refugees, jews, etc.)
- USSR soldiers were forced to go backhome as part of Yalta Agreementto be sent off to the Gulags
- What to do with them?
- Other than USSR, most wanted to gohome, but:home may no longer exist (eitherdestroyed, or made new country when lines were redrawn)
- also, no money & no railroads still around
Dr. Strangelove (1964)
- movie by Stanley Cooper
- filmed in Britain
- Dangers of Nuclear War- play on MADTheory
- Human Error is the biggest factor thatcan debunk the MAD
- Marshall Plan: US sent $ over to Europe after WWII
- Germany bounced back within about 3years & became the major economic force inEurope
- US occupation- dumped $ into Japan
- Japan bounced back relatively quickly
Nazi’s invaded soviet union, they didn’t send them to camps, theyjust sent the Nazi death squads to kill and slaughter Jews in SovietUnion Babi Yar, Ukraine in 1941. They forced the Jews to hand overpossessions and undress before shooting them by the thousands. Jewsbelieved they were being transported to Madagascar but were insteadshot. 100,00 shot. The director of the Einsatzgruppen was HeinrichHimmler.
totalitarianrule, same as you see in Nazi Germany and Mussolini’s Italy. Francoin Spain was also a fascist. In 20’s and 30’s was invented underMussolini in the 20’s. Really strict totalitarianism. The Italianfascists were not nearly as modern and did not kill Jews unlike theGerman fascist.
how to get rid of the Jews quickly: final solution to the Jewishproblem= systematically kill them all! Himmler Nazi officer was thearchitect who came up with the final solution. Significance: it wascovered up and they said that they didn’t know about this plan orthat it even existed. Social science justification. The finalsolution was deciphered in the Wannsee conference, near Berlin.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand-
the heir to the Austrian- Hungarian empire. Yugoslavians wantedtheir freedom and create their own national state, they demanded itand used violence and this one guy, and a Yugoslav nationalist killedFerdinand. The event catapulted into WWI because everyone had eachother’s back
- 1929 stock market crash lead to
- depression in 1930s
- hit almost whole world
- Least damage: Cuba & USSR
- Most damage: Germany: Blamed for WW1,and had to pay for reparations
- Hitler voted into power because of his
- promises of recovery
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere(1930s)
- Japan wanted to make all Asian
- countries under one Great East Asia ( china, pacific islands, Korea,
- Japan was first Asian country to
- undergo industrial revolution
- 2 consequences:
- 1937- Invaded China (Manchuria- start
- of WWI in China)- 100k's killed
- “Rape of Nanking”
- 1941- Pearl Harbor
Rape of Nanking-
Was a mass murder and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking), the former capital of the Republic of China in 1937 during the second Sino Japanese war. During this period, hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and disarmed soldiers were murdered and soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army raped 20,000–80,000 women.
- soviet labor camps (exploited ppl for labor)
- 20 million victims forced to work inGulags
- KGB: “Great Terror”
- Prisoners would work in mines, factories, and railroads for 12-15 hours a week.
- The inmates seemed loyal to
- Stalin; there were 100’s of camps.
- The spread of information was controlled so, no one seemed to know about the camps and the prisoners didn’t know there were other camps
- Atomic bombing by US
- US official reasons:
- Japan didn’t surrender
- “To save lives”- end war
- Keep Japan from Communism (USSR)
- “Nazi Boy Scouts”
- Purpose was to prepare them
- for the army, train the superior race, in Nazi ideology.
- Ukrainian famine.
- It is the Ukrainian word for hunger death”.
- Linked to collectivization policy of Stalin.
- Big issue was if Stalin actuallywas targeting Ukraine so that they wouldn’t want to nationalize.
- Cannibalism resulted
- divided communist and capitalist spheres in Europe
- 1st & 2nd world
- Eastern bloc & Western bloc
- term coined by Churchill in speech
- communist world vs “free world”
- exiled Muslim religious leader, who came back to lead after the Iranian revolution in 1979
- totally opposed the West (opposite of being under the Shaw, previous govt)
- Oppressive govt. (women wear veils, no travel to other schools, etc.)
- govt still basically in place
- Russian guy
- soviet leader during cuban Missile crisis
- came to power after Stalin
- 1st to denounce Stalin: “De-stalinization”
- Policy called “The Thaw”: loosening of repressive Stalin policies (stopped censorship, released prisoners, etc.)
- after surrendered to Nazis: France was split:
- part became “Germany”
- part became Vichy France
- They got to keep their own government, in exchange for loyalty and fighting for France
- trade union made in1980 in Poland
- Surprising thing: It worked (in a Totalitarian Govt)
- Leader of the union voted leader after war
SCAP (SupremeCommander of Allied Powers)
- Japanese Economic Recovery
- name US occupation of Japan
- led by Gen. MacArthur
- purpose: keep Japan in check
“Why We Fight”
- 7 part series of Propaganda films made by Hollywood
- Director Frank Cappra
- shown to troops before being shipped off to war
- also shown as Propaganda throughout US
- half a million protestors showed up in Prague and government just basically handed over power to ppl
- leader of movement became president (democracies)
- led to “velvet divorce” about a yr later
- both were peaceful
was aperiod of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the eraof its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II. It began on5 January 1968, when reformist Slovak Alexander Dubcek came to power,and continued until 21 August when the Soviet Union and members ofits Warsaw pact allies invaded the country to halt the reforms.Liberalization of communist government. Dubcek wanted to reform thegovernment and make it more liberal. He recognized how strong sovietswere and told his people not to resist force but his people didresist. Students set themselves on fire to resist communistoccupation
Developed the hydrogen bomb but opposed nuclear arms race. He wastrying to go against Soviet policy. He tried to disarm it, andregretted what he had done; soviets couldn’t exile him because heknew how to make a nuclear bomb so they put him under house arrest.Didn’t kill him because he was a noble peace prize and wasprominent
Soviet leader during the Cuban missile crisis, he came to power afterStalin in 1953. He was the first to denounce Stalin, and began thedesalinization of USSR, first to publicly say, “Stalin was not agood guy.” “The thaw” policy (released captives under thegulag). He was much less repressive than USSR under Stalin.
Ordinary people doing ordinary things, life as it will become.Calls people together for a common good. Alexander Kobzdej “Passme a brick” portrayed hopefulness in laying bricks. It showed unitythat we are the same, working together for the common cause (facesare blurred). Victor Koshevoi “Building Site” (1973) shows nopeople, which beg the question: is progress really happening? Thereis an emphasis on society, on the greater good than on individuals. sa style of realistic art which was developed under Socialism in thesoviet union and became a dominant style in other communistcountries. Socialist realism often glorifies the roles of the poor
itwas the second conference of the 3 major conferences held in 1945 todetermine what the world would look like at the end of the war. Thewar against Germany was ending, and the 3 powers (Churchill, Wilson,and Stalin) discussed governing Germany after the war. Churchill wasskeptic of Stalin but Roosevelt was not. Soviet Union won WWII, so itbecame about what we could get the Russians to do. Poland:Churchill insisted that Poland should be a democracy, but Stalininsisted that it would remain communist. Germany: wouldundergo de-nazification and Germany would lose its army/military, paywar reparations (war labor), Nazi war criminals had to be put ontrial (trials at Nuremburg) German Reich was divided into USSR,France, UK and US. Japan: They promised to invade Japan. Underthe conference the two powers agreed to Stalin’s proposal to returnall the Displaced Persons
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