lab quiz 7

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lab quiz 7
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  1. the process of providing nutrition for the body
    • alimentation
    • from the latin word alimentum, meaning to nourish
    • +ation = process
  2. in human beings is the oral taking of substances into the body
    ingestion
  3. -the mechanical and chemical conversion of food into substances that can eventually be absorbed by cells
    -mechanical: accomplished by chewing
    -chemical: begins in in the mouth and completed in the stomach
    digestion
  4. the process in which the digested food molecules pass through the lining of the small intestine into the blood or lymph capillaries
    absorption
  5. the elimination of wastes through the anus in the form of feces
    defecation
  6. the 3 major classes of nutrients
    carbohydrates, proteins, lipids
  7. the basic source of energy for human cells, include sugars and starches
    carbohydrates
  8. required for the chemical break down of nutrient into similar substances
    enzymes
  9. -ose vs -ase
    • -ose: meaning sugar
    • -ase: meaning enzyme
  10. the eventual product of the digestion of sugars as well as starches; it is a simple sugar that is the major source of energy for the body
    glucose
  11. the enzyme that breaks down starch
    • amylase
    • amyl/o = starch
    • -ase = enzyme
  12. the effective enzyme that breaks down protein
    • protease or proteinase
    • proteo/o or protein/o = protein
    • -ase = enzyme
  13. the effective enzyme that breaks down a lipid (fat)
    • lipase
    • lip/o = fat
    • -ase = enzyme
  14. -ation
    action or process
  15. bil/i, chol/e
    bile
  16. cirrh/o
    orange-yellow
  17. de-
    down, from, reversing, or removing
  18. glycos/o
    sugar
  19. -orexia
    appetite
  20. -pepsia
    digestion
  21. vag/o
    vagus nerve
  22. viscer/o
    viscera
  23. basically a long muscular tube that is lined with mucous membrane, begins at the mouth and ends at the anus
    alimentary canal or digestive tract
  24. refers to the stomach and the intestines
    gastrointestinal
  25. consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach
    upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI)
  26. made up of the small and large intestine
    lower gastrointestinal tract (LGI)
  27. cheil/o
    lips
  28. dent/i, dent/o, odont/o
    teeth
  29. gingiv/o
    gums
  30. gloss/o, lingu/o
    tongue
  31. or/o, stomat/o
    mouth
  32. esophag/o
    esophagus
  33. gastr/o
    stomach
  34. intestin/o, enter/o
    • intestines
    • enter/o sometimes refers only to the small intestine
  35. duoden/o
    duodenum
  36. jejun/o
    jejunum
  37. ile/o
    ileum
  38. col/o, colon/o
    • colon or large intestine*
    • the colon makes up most of the large intestine, therefore, the word colon is sometimes used inaccurately as a synonym for the entire large intestine
    • in words containing col/o, the distinction between the colon and large intestine is usually not significant
  39. append/o, appendic/o
    appendix
  40. cec/o
    cecum
  41. sigmoid/o
    sigmoid colon
  42. proct/o
    anus or rectum
  43. rect/o
    rectum
  44. an/o
    anus
  45. the liver produces this which breaks down fats before absorption by the small intestine; continually produced by the liver and is either stored by the gallbladder or conveyed to the small intestine for immediate use
    bile
  46. means pertaining to the common bile duct
    • choledoch al
    • choledoch/o = common bile duct
    • -al = pertaining to
  47. sometimes formed within the gallbladder and can be lodged there for years without causing problems
    gallstones
  48. a small organ with two impt functions: (1) it produces pancreatic juice which is impt in the digestion of food and (2) it produces insulin
    pancreas
  49. a hormone that regulates the blood sugar level
    insulin
  50. located in the oral cavity and responsible for producing saliva
    salivary glands
  51. cholecyst/o
    gallbladder
  52. choledoch/o
    common bile duct
  53. hepat/o
    liver
  54. pancreat/o
    pancreas
  55. sial/o
    salivary gland
  56. an x-ray image of the esophagus taken while the patient swallows a liquid barium susension
    esophagram or esophagogram
  57. ingested in upper GI series, and the radiographic examination is made as the barium passes through the esophagus, stomach and duodenum
    barium meal
  58. the lower intestinal tract is studied with a ___, a rectal infusion of barium sulfate
    barium enema
  59. x-ray examination of the gallbladder; accomplished by rendering the gallbladder and ducts opaque with a contrast medium; rarely used today having been replaced by sonography
    chole cysto graphy
  60. the presence of gall stones
    chole lith iasis
  61. if the flow of bile is obstructed by a stone or in certain liver diseases, this condition is called ___; characterized by yellowing of the skin, whites of the eyes, mucous membranes and body fluids as a result of deposition of bile pigment
    jaundice
  62. if a gallstone moves into the common bile duct
    • choledocho lith iasis
    • choledoch/o = common bile duct
    • lith/o = stone
    • -iasis = condition
  63. the salivary ducts can be studied by injecting radiopaque substances into the ducts in a procedure called a ____, which may be used to demonstrate the presence of calculi in the ducts
    sialography
  64. upper gastrointestinal ____ is visual examination of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
    endoscopy
  65. focus of endoscopy procedure is on the examination of the esophagus, this procedure is called ____
    esophagoscopy
  66. the endoscopic examination of the lining of the colon
    colono scopy
  67. instrument used for colonoscopy
    colonoscope
  68. the same meaning as colonoscopy but is less commonly used; the physician may also obtain tissue biopsy specimens or remove polyps during this procedure
    coloscopy
  69. primarily a result of resistance to insulin or lack of insulin secretion by the insulin secreting cells of the pancreas
    diabetes mellitus (DM)
  70. without insulin, glucose builds up in the bood and results in ____; an increase in glucose level in the blood; ultimately results in the classic symptoms of DM: polyphagia, polyuria, polydipsia
    • hyper glyc emia
    • hyper = increased
    • glyc/o = sugar
    • -emia = blood
  71. means excessive hunger or uncontroled eating
    • polyphagia
    • poly = many
    • phagia = eating
  72. excessive urination
    polyuria
  73. means excessive thirst
    polydipsia
  74. glucose in the urine
    glycosuria
  75. type 1 or 2 DM? genetically determined and results in absolute insulin deficiency; however, most people with this gene never develop this type of diabetes
    type 1 DM
  76. type 1 or 2 DM? genetics, environ factors, aging and obesity may contribute to its development; characterized by insulin resistance rather than insufficient secretion
    type 2 DM
  77. first recognized during pregnancy, is carbohydrate intolerance, usually caused by a deficiency of insulin; it disappears after delivery of the infant but in a significant number of cases, returns years later
    gestational diabetes mellitus
  78. another dysfunction of the pancreas in which it produces too much insulin; the blood contains less than normal amount of sugar
    • hypo glycemia
    • hypo = less than normal
  79. an increased amount of fat or lipids in the blood
    hyperlipidemia or hyperlipemia
  80. abnormal increase in the proportion of fat cells of the body
    obesity
  81. a person is regarded medically obese if he/she is _% above the desirable body weight for the person's age, sex, height and body type
    20%
  82. a word that means vomiting
    emesis
  83. excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutrition
    emaciation
  84. associated with psychological stress or conflict, is a disorder characterized by prolonged refusal to eat that results in emaciation
    anorexia nervosa
  85. another type of emotional disorder associated with food, is characterized by episodes of binge eating that often terminate in self induced vomiting
    bulimia
  86. either prolonged anorexia or bulimia leads to depletion of nutrients for body cells and results in ____; can be caused by malabsorption
    • malnutrition
    • mal = bad
  87. a complex of symtoms that include anorexia, weight loss, flatulence, muscle cramps and bone pain
    malabsorption syndrome
  88. excessive gas in the stomach and intestinal tract that leads to bloating
    flatulence
  89. ulcers, chiefly of the mouth and lips
    canker sores
  90. inflammation of the lip
    • cheilitis
    • cheil/o = lip
    • itis = inflammation
  91. inflammation of the gums
    gingivitis
  92. inflammation of the tongue; the tongue is painful, sometimes covered with ulcers, and swallowing is difficult
    glossitis
  93. inflammation of the mouth
    stomatitis
  94. inability to swallow or difficulty in swallowing
    • dysphagia
    • dys = painful or difficult
    • phag/o = eat
    • -ia = condition
  95. a complex of enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus that are susceptible to hemorrhage
    esophageal varices
  96. inflammation of the esophagus
    esophagitis
  97. a condition resulting from a backflow of the stomach contents into the esophagus; the acidic gastric juices cause burning pain in the esophagus; repeated episodes of reflux can result in esophagitis, narrowing of the esophagus, or an esophageal ulcer; treatment is elevation of the head of the bed, avoidance of acid-stimulating foods and the use of antacids or antiulcer medications
    gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  98. inflammation of the stomach
    • gastritis
    • gastr/o = stomach
  99. herniation of the stomach; a common tpe of this is a hiatus or hiatal hernia, protrusion of a structure through the opening in the diagphragm that allows passage of the esophagus; often the protruding structure is part of the stomach
    gastrocele
  100. inflammation of the stomach and the intestinal tract
    • gastroenteritis
    • enter/o = intestine
  101. an excessive amount of acid in the stomach; the condition may lead to ulceration of the stomach and is treated with antacids or antiulcer medications; antibiotics are also effective in certain cases
    hyperacidity
  102. a lesion of the mucous membrane, accompanied by the sloughing (shedding) of dead tissue
    ulcer
  103. bleeding of the upper digestive structures, sometimes evidence of blood in the vomit
    upper gastrointestinal bleeding
  104. inflammation of the veriform appendix
    appendicitis
  105. inflammation of the colon
    colitis
  106. inflammation fo the diverticulum in the intestinal tract; esp in the colon, causing stagnation, or lack of movement, of feces and pain
    diverticulitis
  107. performed if diverticulitis is severe
    diverticulectomy
  108. a small sac or pouch in the wall of an organ
    diverticulum
  109. the presence of diverticula without inflammation, a condition that affects a number of people older than 50 years and may cause few symptoms
    diverticulosis
  110. an ulcer of the duodenum; bleeding is sometimes present with this type of ulcer; perforation can occur, which can lead to peritonitis
    duodenal ulcer
  111. inflammation of the duodenum
    duodenitis
  112. stoppage or delay in the passage of food through the intestine
    • enterostasis
    • enter/o = intestine
    • -stasis = stopping
  113. masses of veins in the anal canal that are unnaturally distended and lie just inside or outside the rectum; they are often accompanied by pain, itching, and bleeding
    hemorrhoids
  114. abnormally increased motility of the small and large intestines of unknown origins; most of those affected are young adults who report diarrhea and occasionally pain in the abdomen, usually relieved by passing gas or stool
    • irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
    • also called... functional bowel syndrome, mucous colitis or spastic colon
  115. bleeding of the lower digestive structures
    lower gastrointestinal bleeding
  116. inflammation of the gallbladder
    • cholecystitis
    • cholecyst/o = gallbladder
  117. formation or presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
    • cholelithiasis
    • chol/e = gall or bile
    • lith/o = stone
    • -iasis = condition
  118. stoppage of bile excretion
    cholestasis
  119. a chronic liver disease characterized by marked degeneration of liver cells
    cirrhosis
  120. inflammation of the liver
    hepatitis
  121. enlargement of the liver
    hepatomegaly
  122. a general term for disease characterized by excessive urination, but it usually refers to DM
    diabetes
  123. a condition in which the blood glucose level is abnormally low; it can be caused by excessive production of insulin by the pancreas or excessive injection of insulin
    hypoglycemia
  124. inflammation of the pancreas
    pancreatitis
  125. appetite suppressing drug
    anorexiant
  126. surgical approach for treating extreme obesity, generally tried when conservative methods have failed, limit food intake or absorption by either ___ or ___
    • gastro plasty
    • or gastric bypass
    • these surgeries reduce the stomach's capacity
  127. used to treat diarrhea
    anti diarrheals
  128. used to relieve or prevent vomiting
    anti emetics
  129. cause evacuation of the bowel and may be prescribed to correct constipation
    laxatives
  130. strong medications used to promote full evacuation of the bowel, as in preparation for diagnostic studies or surgery of the digestive tract
    purgatives or cathartics
  131. what are some non-surgical treatments for removal of gallstones?
    • 1. oral drugs that dissolve the stones
    • 2. laser lithotripsy (tripsy = surgical crushing)
    • 3. shock wave litrotripsy
  132. the gall bladder is excised with a laser and removed through a small incision in the abdominal wall
    laparoscopic cholecystectomy
  133. removal of the veriform appendix; is removed when it is acutely infected to prevent peritonitis, which can occur if the appendix ruptures
    appendectomy
  134. surgical removal of the gallbladder; exploration of the common bile duct is often performed during this
    cholecystectomy
  135. performed during cholecystectomy; the biliary vessels are injected with a contrast medium and x-ray images are taken to determine whether stones are present
    • cholangiography
    • chol/e = bile
    • angi/o = vessel
    • graphy = recording
  136. creation of an artificial anus on the abdominal wall by incising the colon and drawing it out to the surface; is performed when the feces cannot pass through the colon and out through the anus
    colostomy
  137. surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
    gastrectomy
  138. surgical removal of part of the stomach where the remaining portion of the stomach is joined to the duodenum
    gastroduodenostomy
  139. surgical creation of a new opening into the stomach through the abdominal wall; this allows the insertion of a synthetic feeding tube and is performed when the patient cannot eat normally
    gastrostomy
  140. removal of hemorrhoids by any of several means, including surgery
    hemorrhoidectomy
  141. creation of a surgical passage through the abdominal wall into the ileum; is necessary when the large intestine has been removed; fecal material from the ileum drains thorough an opening called a STOMA into a bag worn on the abdomen
    ileostomy
  142. examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall; done for inspection of abdominal organs and also for laparoscopic surgeries
    laparoscopy
  143. removal of tissue from the liver for patholigic examination
    liver biopsy
  144. removal of liver by using a needle to puncture the skin overlying the liver; considered a closed biopsy
    percutaneous liver biopsy
  145. excision of a pancreatic stone
    pancreatolithectomy
  146. resection (partial excision) of portions of the vagus nerve near the stomach; this procedure is performed to decrease the amt of gastric juices by severing the nerve (vagus nerve) that controls their release
    vagotomy

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