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- Caesar adopted him
- (mother was Caesar’s niece) and he even rode with him in a triumphate (highest
- He defeats Antony in
- the battle at Actium (something he tries to overcompensate for for his entire
- He ruled for 44
- years and established himself as princeps and known as the first emperor
- Puts house on the
- palatine (palace) in association with the new temple and cult of Apollo and
- remodeled the forum
- On the Field of Mars
- (campus marcius) he traditionally built temples, porticoes, theatres and
- amphitheatre in the vicinity of the circus Flaminius. And a sundial with
- calendar by his huge mosuleoum
- Followed the model of governing that Caligula had established instead of Augustus's policy
- Self-indulgent and extravagant like Caligula, which contributed to his short 14 years as ruler
- In 68 CE, the Senate declared him an enemy of the state and he committed suicide
- Had ordered the murder of Agrippina (his mother), Britannicus, and Octavia
- Introduced Fourth Style in wall painting
- Lavished with money in his huge palace
Created baths on the field of mars and a market
Fire happened, destroyed the city and he was able to take liberty in re-building it.
Built the Golden House and he commits suicide, ending the Judio-Claudian Dynasty.
Before the fire: Nero's construction projects were overly extravagant and the large number of expenditures under Nero left Italy "thoroughly exhausted by contributions of money" with "the provinces ruined." Modern historians, though, note that the period was riddled with deflation and that it is likely that Nero's spending came in the form of public works projects and charity intended to ease economic troubles
phenomenal marble - stood for conquest, expansion, imperialism
White marble from Athens. Quarried in Mt. Pentelicon and Mt. Hymettos. Exported all over Helenistic kingdoms and imported through Rome. Marble is finely crystalled and translucent w/ greenish, pink or grey colors. Used for architecture and statues, especially during reign of Domitian.
- commonest and most typically Roman order. Favored for major temples. Columns are of
- slender proportion, shaft 8x its lower diam. Base consists of rectangular
- plinth on top of which there is a circular element. Corinthian capital takes
- form of inverted bell set in midst of a plant
- has Attic base, usually fluted shaft of similar slenderness to Corinthian. Low capital w/
- flat cushion with scrolled ends overhanging the shaft to either side. Major
- order in Greek world.
- plainest of all orders. Closely related to each other. Similar form of capital: circular
- cushion below a low square plate. No examples left of Tuscan in Rome. The Greek
- Doric has no base and the shaft is normally divided into 20 shallow flutes
- meeting in sharp edges.
Arches as freestanding monuments
- Early C2BC onwards. Erected for specific person in celebration of military triumph or in
- their honor w/ their statue or other insignia.
- the traditional town house of old Rome, occupied by single wealthy family w/ their
- servants. Had atrium where master of house would receive clients and friends.
- Had at least one peristyle garden and other courts.
- broadly interpreted as multi story apartment block accommodating several families or
- single individuals. There was an enormous influx of population in C2 bc.
- Rostra (Orator’s Platform)
- A platform for public speeches, it is the commanding position on axis with the Forum
- square. Consists of a concrete core with a curved front, faced with colored
- marble, adorned with bronze prows taken as trophies from captures enemy
- warships (this has been customary to mount on public speaking platforms).
- Temple of Castor
- An Augustan Monument on the Forum. Tiberius dedicated it in his own name and that
- of his brother Drusus. The temple proper, in white Italian marble, with eight
- columns at the front and back and eleven down the sides, was of Corinthian
- order. Castor and his twin brother were demi-gods and semi mythical calvary
- horses. They were the sons of Jupiter. Tradition has it that the twins were
- seen at the battle of Lake Regillus. The battle marked Rome’s defeat of the
- Latins. And Castor, the mortal brother, became known as a symbol of military
- Temple of Divus Julius
- When Julius Caesar was assassinated he was given a public funeral. The temple was
- dedicated by Augustus. It actually invaded the Forum space, forming a second
- tribunal, the rostra Julia, to match that at the other end, and was decorated
- with symbols of Augustus’ own victory- the prows (rostra) of the ships captured
- in the Battle of Actium, when he defeated Marc Antony to gain absolute power.
- Remodeled after disastrous fire in AD 283, already was a thousand years old.
- Started as open area w/ stream running though middle.
- Stream sent underground in the Great Drain.
- By C5 BC it was the political, constitutional, and symbolic center of the republican city-state.
- Public space for political assemblies, riots and rallies, committee meetings, lawsuits, public funerals, and public feasts.
- Buildings soon became show-pieces of new form of political competition.
- Military successes would become public offices and costly new projects.
- The forum we still see is radically different, set in train by Julius Caesar and further developed by emperors from Augustus to Constantine.
- 29 Bc the Temple of the deified Julius Caesar was erected at the eastern end.
- Temple of Castor and the Basilicas on the N and S sides were rebuilt after fire and dedicated to the glory of the Julian house.
- Triumphal arches linked Temple of Julius to Temple of Castor, and the Temple of Saturn to the Basilica Julia.
- AD 10 the Temple of Concordia Augusta was finished, directly in line w/ Temple of Julius Caesar.
- Temple of Concordia Augusta
- Mound of concrete behind the Arch of Septimius Severus belongs to great temple-museum of Concordia Augusta (Harmony in the Imperial Family). One wing is still trapped under the adjacent terraces and staircase. Dedicated by Tiberius in AD 10, it replaced an earlier temple of Concord, which had been struck by lightning or burned down in 9 BC.
Mausoleum of Augustus
- 29 B.C.
- Two years after conquering Mark Antony and Cleopatra, Octavian/Agustus returned to Rome to celebrate his triple triumph for his
1.victory at Actium,
2. the annexation of Egypt,
3. and his conquest of Illyricum.
- fascist square
- finest examples of fascist architecture (strong political will & community through dominance of war, violence if necessary)
- 2 obelisks flanking the doors, posts showing what he accomplished in his life, status of him in his chariot or with a spear
- the biggest: round tomb of 300 ft diameter
- Marsh of Capra: according to Roman tradition, this is where Romulus had disappeared up to the heavens in a dark cloud and became a god (1 version of death of Romulus)
- mausoleum also meant to imply victory (ie trophies)
- completely different than normal mausoleums, but kind of like Alexandria (buttressing of walls against pier) - clear evocation of Egypt)
- 2 obelisks carved out of granite (only get in egypt) - first obelisks ever brought to Rome, like "spoils" outside mausoleumdeath means god
- A meander: A pattern that started in Egypt as a hieroglyph representing a maze
- A labyrinth is a protection device
- Separates the campus relief at the bottom from the top
- The campus--Flowers
Various reliefs: Tellus/Italia/Pax/Venus/Cenus: Representing land, sea, water, plants, flowers
- When it comes to the procession of friezes: Augustus, chief priests, Agrippa, Olivia, Imperial Family
- On other side is the senators: Moral legislation and presence of women and children
- celebrated Augustus’s safe return home from Spain and Gaul
- a small marble alter within a hypaethral rectangular enclosure
- lavish relief sculpture ornaments the entire monument
- the lower half of the exterior of the enclosure wall is a rich carpet of acanthus
-the upper register, four panels flank the doors on the east and west sides
WEST- Aeneas sacrifices on his arrival in Latiium and the she-wolf suckles Romulus and Remus
- EAST- 2 seated figures represents the goddess of Roma and a female of disputed identity, nursing two infants and surrounded by animals,
- vegetation, and 2 female personifications of winds or seasons.
NORTH & SOUTH- Friezes on north and south sides depict a procession of priests, senators, and imperioal personages.
the interior of the enclosure is carved to imitate wooden laths and pilasters, decorated with bucrania, garlands, and peterae
The First Style
- "Incrustation" (right) is thought to imitate Greek painting that created flat areas of color and 'faux" finishes (like a fake marble or oak finish).
- Masonry style
In the second style Roman wall painting, called the "architectural style," space extends beyond the room with various perspective ("illusion of three-dimensional space on a flat two-dimensional surface) devices. Roman artists came close to developing a true linear perspective.
called the "Ornate Style," pictorial illusion is confined to "framed" images, where even the "framing" is painted on. The overall appearance is flat rather than a 3-d illusion of space.
- called the "Intricate Style," confines full three-dimensional illusion to the "framed images," which are placed like pictures in an exhibition.
- The images themselves do not relate to one another nor do they present a narrative, as in the Second Style.
The Fourth Style is also characterized by the open vistas and the use of aerial perspective, as well as the elaborate architectural framing
Veristic style portraiture
(superealistic)-- painstakingly recorded receding hairline, sunken cheeks, wrinkles, etc
Ancient world believe physiology revealed character
- Built a temple for the worship of his deified adoptive father, Divus Augustus, though still
- incomplete at Tiberius' death. Carried on Augustus's policies in domestic and foreign matters and continued to promote the
- Classicizing style of sculpture and architecture that his divine father had favored
- Endorsed by the army as emperor in 37 CE at age 25.
- The first "colorful" Roman emperor and demanded to be recognized as a god
- Accused of cruelty, depravity, and even committing incest with his three sisters
- Said to have ordered the murder of his perceived enemies and potential rivals
- Assassinated within four years of his rule
- Depicted handsome,
- blemish-free, youthful, and aloof in the Augustan-Tiberian Classicizing mold
Saluted as emperor when the praetorian guard found him cowering behind a curtain in fear of his nephew's (Caligula) outrageous behavior
Majority of his portraits show him as a man in his 50s instead of "default mode" (youthful)
- Rejected Augustan idealism in portraiture and allowed himself to be depicted as an older man
- Augustan Classicism gave way to a preference for rusticated masonry
- First man who puts up a building to celebrate himself
- Names road and aqueduct he puts up (Aqua Appia, Via Appia)
- Romans thought it was okay
governed by a complex constitution, which centered on the principles of a separation of powers and checks and balances. The evolution of the constitution was heavily influenced by the struggle between the aristocracy, or the patricians, and other talented Romans who were not from famous families, the plebeians.
post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean. The term is used to describe the Roman state during and after the time of the first emperor, Augustus.
"The Senate and the People of Rome"
- Portraits like Alexander the Great
- Theater was supposed to be huge and impressive
- was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic
- Pompey fulfilled the trope of the great man who achieved extraordinary triumphs through his own efforts, yet fell from power and was, in the end, murdered through treachery.
- He was a hero of the Republic, who seemed once to hold the Roman world in his palm only to be brought low by his own poor judgment and
- Caesar. Pompey was idealized as a tragic hero almost immediately after Pharsalus and his murder: Plutarch portrayed him as a Roman Alexander the Great, pure of heart and mind, destroyed by the cynical ambitions of those around him.
Battle of Actium
- decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic. It was fought between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. The battle took place on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the Roman colony of Actium in Greece. Octavian's fleet was commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, while Antony's fleet was supported by the ships of his beloved, Cleopatra VII, Queen of Ptolemaic Egypt.
- Octavian's victory enabled him to consolidate his power over Rome and its dominions. To that end, he adopted the title of Princeps ("first citizen") and as a result of the victory was awarded the title of Augustus by the Roman Senate. As Augustus, he would retain the trappings of a
- restored Republican leader; however, historians generally view this consolidation of power and the adoption of these honorifics as the end
- of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire.
- Becomes clearly a temple of Egypt
- Terra cotta reliefs with references to Egypt
- Analogy between him and Apollo and Marc Antony and Hercules
- Augustus builds Temple of Apollo and his own palace
- celebrates all the gods
- The concept is an Egyptian concept...gives back power to Rome
circular with a portico of three ranks of huge granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment opening into the rotunda, under a coffered, concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome
In the aftermath of the Battle of Actium (31 BC), Marcus Agrippa built and dedicated the original Pantheon during his third consulship (27 BC).
- Narrative on campus martius
- Between any two points, there's a straight line: Lined up with the obelisks
- Meaning of why it's lined up with the clock
- Force somebody by positioning to look at something
Roman statesman and general. He was a close friend, son-in-law, lieutenant and defense minister to Octavian, the future emperor Caesar Augustus. He was responsible for most of Octavian’s military victories, most notably winning the naval Battle of Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
- repaired all streets & buildings, cleaned out sewers, rides a boat through the sewer to make sure it works
- Literally & metaphorically purges the city
- Cloaca Maxima, city's sewer (under Roman forum)
- Aqua Marcia: puts his name on it (rebuilds) - Rome's most spectacular aqueduct
- 1st w/ huge structures & arches (architectural authority)
- Repairs it in 33, before Augustus
- First to bring water to private houses
- Aqua Virgo, 24 - 19 BCE
- Builds from scratch, Rome's first supplied baths
- Supplies Trevini fountain (first ornamental fountain)
- Baths are in the marshes: previously called Thermae Balnaiae massive act of buying public support: public cleanliness etc
- Massive act of benefaction, probably on his own land: built into concept were extensive gardens, gym, recreational areas
- Funds free admissions year round for the people
- Gaining popular support: does this in other venues, through theatres, shows, etc
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, along with Gaius Maecenas and Octavian, was a central person in the establishing of the Principate system of emperors, which would govern the Roman Empire up until the Crisis of the Third Century and the birth of Dominate system. His grandson Gaius is known to history as the Emperor Caligula
, and his great-grandson Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus would rule as the Emperor Nero
Gnomon: obelisk from Heliopolis (Egyptian)
- Used Greek letters set into the ground
- A bronze grid with the signs of the zodiac and seasonal changes
- First of two ancient Egyptian obelisks brought into Rome...The other was in Circus Maximus
- Meaning to Rome:
- Bringing Egypt to Rome; Egyptian spoils
- Controlling knowledge and time
- Dedicated to the sun (Egypt=Ra, Rome=Apollo)
- Giving a clock to the city
- A major engineering feat to transport rare red granite from Egypt
- A huge challenge to put the column up...the WOW factor
- Late Republican power gain: politicians purchasing specialist knowledge; political maneuvering
Forum w/ temple to Mars Ultor (the Avenger)
Temple – Corinthian columns w/ facing for podium and walls of gleaming white marble from Luna, N. Italy
Recently open quarries > Augustus had “found Rome a city of brick and left it a city of marble.”
Inside, group of 3 statues (Mars Ultor, Venus Gentrix w Cupid and deified Caesar), relief
Mars and Venus also appear in pediment w/ Romulus, Fortuna, Roma, and personifications of Palantine Hill and Tiber River
Stood @ N end of new Augustan Forum, contiguous and perpendicular to the Forum Ilium
In porticos and exedras, Augustus represented himself as latest in long line of Roman summi viri (great men)
Atrium filled w/ ancestor portraits > served to underscore emperor’s distinguished family tree and divine descent
Temple of Jupiter
- development of the sense of a city, transformed a place into a city/republic
- vowing temples to appeal to a god, or thank for success
Temple of Apollo
- elephant associated w/ foreign land & royalty (Africa)
- Egyptian commentary
- temple as reception for people
- Even when Julius was alive, people made up stories about his special relationship with Apollo
- dedicated to Caesar
- Most famous of his portraits
- Shows progression of portraiture
- Less turn on neck (less energetic)
- More serene & calm (small adjustments)
- eternal youth like gods (no wrinkles except in one portrait), separate himself from republic
- Showing himself as a Hellenistic King: saying he is a conqueror and that Constitution is irrelevant to him (like Pompi portrait) - quoting Alexander the Great in his portrait
- deliberately quoting through flip of hair
- We as Romans are as culturally supreme as the Greeks (by quoting their sculpture)
- Dolphin: referencing Battle of Actium (naval battles)
- A legitimizing portrait about authority
- About 19 BCE, victory against Parthinians
The similarities in construction technique suggest that Augustus architect turned to Egypt
for a solution to structural requirements that he recognized to be close to those of the Pharos or other Egyptian buildings;
He then adapted the technique to complement Roman construction materials (cement for all but the central pillar, for ease of construction, economy, and lightness
), to combine with known Roman building procedures (radial walls and recumbent arches
between the outer three walls), and to suit the chosen location.
- *Rustication = trademark in Claudian architecture
- Columns even made up of un-worked capital pieces
- Deliberately trying to look old—referencing back to regal early architecture
- Turning to Republican ideals by looking at earlier things