Chapter 21 biology
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A _______ ______ is an aquatic organism hat sifts small food particles from the water. i.e. whales, clams, tube worm
A ________ ______is an organism that lives in or on its food source, eating its way through the food. i.e. caterpillars, earthworms
A _______ ______ is an organism that lives by sucking nutrient-rich fluids from another living organism. i.e. aphids, mosquitos
A ________ _______ is an organism that eats relatively large pieces of food. i.e. herons, humans
4 stages of food processing
1ststage: Ingestion is the act of eating. (4 ways to do this)
2ndstage: Digestion breaks down food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb.
3rdstage: Absorption is the uptake of small nutrient molecules, such as amino acids and simple sugars. The cells lining the digestive tract absorb the products of digestion; the nutrients,which travel in the blood to body cells to provide energy. Foodnot needed immediately are converted to fat for storage.
4thstage: Elimination is the passing of undigested material out of the digestive compartment.
A __________ _______ is a digestive compartment with a single opening, the mouth. Food is ingested through the mouth and elimination of undigested materials is through the mouth. i.e. hydr
Most animals have an _____ _____ which is a digestive tract with two openings, the mouth and the anus, plus a tube/ specialized compartmentconnecting the two
The _______ moves air from the pharynx to the lungs.
The _________moves food from the pharynx to the stomach.
The _______ is a flap of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue.
The _______ is the voicebox with vocal cords
Alternating waves of contraction and relaxation by smooth muscle in the walls of the canal move food along in a process called ______
Too much acidity in the stomach inhibits the release of gastrin. This is a ________ _____ mechanism b/c the secretion of gastrin hormone is inhibited by too much product from the secretion of gastrin hormone.
_______ is the mixture of partially digested food & digestive juices that is formed in the stomach. thick soup
The ______ _______regulates the passage of food (now chyme) from the stomach to the small intestine and limits the upward movement of acids into the esophagus
_______ ______ secrete pepsinogen which is secreted into the lumen. HCl converts pepsinogen to pepsin. Pepsin activates more pepsinogen.
HCl converts pepsinogen to pepsin. Pepsin activates more pepsinogen. This is a ________ _______ mechanisms b/c the end product, pepsin, promotes the formation of more pepsin.
The liver and pancreas are 2 organs that contribute to digestion in the small intestine, mostly in the first 25 cm called the __________
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