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"Elderly" is defined as:
- 65 yrs. of age or greater
- Age when bodily functions begin to break down/chronic diseases become more common
How much of OTC products do the Elderly buy?
4 Reasons why elderly are at increased risk of drug-related problems?
- 1. Body handles drugs differently
- 2. Decreased ability to cope with illness or side effects
- 3. Patterns of judgment impaired
- 4. Different dug effects/side effects specific to their age group
Effects of Aging
- vising/hearing loss
- changes in mental status
- nutritional changes
Changes in how the body acts on drugs
- Absorption: changes in stomach/intestinal function
- Where drug goes: changes in body fat/muscle
- How body processes drug: decreased liver and kidney function
Changes in how drug affects body
- altered drug receptor interactions (where drug works)
- altered body system: nerves, heart, glands, metabolism, etc.
- Premature: Gestational age < 36 weeks
- Neonate: First month of life
- Infant: 1-12 mo.
- Toddler: 1-3 yrs.
- Early Childhood: 3-6 yrs.
- Middle Childhood: 6-12 yrs.
- Adolescent: 13-18 yrs.
Age and Rec. Temp method
- Birth to 3 mo: rectal
- 3mo to 3yrs: rectal, armpit, ear
- 4 to 5yrs: rectal armpit, ear, oral
- older than 5yrs: armpit, ear, oral
Measurement and Fever Indicators (degrees F)
- Rectal: 100.5
- Oral: 99.8
- Armpit/axillary: 99.1
- Ear/tympanic: 100.4
When to seek medical attention for child's fever?
- fever>105 F
- skin rash (purple)
- **see hand out for dif. ages
Why avoid Aspirin to treat child's fever?
Association with Reye's Syndrome
3 considerations when dosing meds for fever
- 1. Do NOT exceed recommended doses/day
- 2. Be aware of dosing for certain age
- 3. Understand side effects (age, preexisting cond.)
Pregnancy Detection Method: Basal Thermometer
- Works: meas. rise of body temp during ovulation (.1-.4)
- Use: must meas. every morning for couple months
Pregnancy Detection Method: Ovulation Predictor Test
- Works: detects change in pH during ovulation
- Uses: avoid sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy at this time
What can cause a FALSE POSITIVE pregnancy test? (says pos, but NOT preg)
- miscarriage/recent birth (8 wks)
- certain meds
- ovarian cysts: ectopic preg.
What can case a FALSE NEGATIVE pregnancy test? (says neg, but ARE preg)
- used before 1st day of missed period
- testing cold urine
- wax or soap residue
7 Steps required to accurately perform a pregnancy test
- 1. wait specified days after missed period
- 2. beware of using wax cups/other cups
- 3. use 1st morning urine
- 4. test immediately after urine collection
- 5. open packages just before testing
- 6. collect urine and dip stick or hold stick in stream
- 7. lay device on flat service and read in time specified
HCG is detectable in how many weeks after conception?
- Works: prevents sperm from reaching the uterus by lining the vagina with a polyurethane membrane
- Side effects: discomfort, less sensation, allergic rxns.
- Prevent STI? YES
- Works: insert up to 8 hrs. before intercourse
- Side effects: squeaking, decreased sensation
- Prevent STI? YES
- Works: insert before intercourse, leave in up to 8 hrs
- Side effects: may cause redness or irritation (allergic rxn)
- Prevent STI: NO
Natural Family Planning
- 1. Calendar/Rhythm method
- 2. Basal Body temp.
- 3. Cervical mucus
- 4. Symptothermal method
- **see handout for specifics
- Side effects: N/A
- Prevent STI? NO
Plan B One Step
- Works: take w/in 72 hrs of BC failure or unprotected sex; stops release of egg f/ ovary (changes womb and cervical mucus making harder for sperm to meet egg
- Side effects: nausea, stomach pain, tender breasts, vomiting, headache
Difference between male condom materials
- 1. Latex: cheapest, stretchy, degrade with lube
- 2. Polyurethane: less stretchy, more expensive, do NOT degrade with oil-base lube
- 3. Lamb Cecum: more expensive, ONLY prevents preg (NOT STI)
Advantages of Condoms
- protection of preg. and some STI's
- tourniquette effect
- prolong male plateau's phase
Disadvantages of Condoms
- loss of pleasure/sensation
- 4-play interruption
- allergic rxn.
- unable to maintain erection
Steps to properly use a condom
- 1. Open pacakge carefully
- 2. put on before vaginal contact
- 3. unroll over erect penis; leave 1/2 in at end
- 4. pull off before penis gets soft
- 5. check for tears (spermicidal lube if so)
Recommended Daily Elemental Calcium Intake (mg)
- Adults, Age<50: 1000mg
- Adults, Age>50: 1200mg
- Pregnat and Nursing <18: 1300mg
- Pregnat and Nursing >19: 1000mg
Recommended Daily Vitamin D Intake (IU)
- Adults, Age<50: 400-800IU
- Adults, Age>50: 800-1000IU
- Pregnat and Nursing: 400-800IU
What is the max amount of calcium the body can absorb at one sitting?