Pharm 1003 Special Populations

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Author:
melkrug2
ID:
78161
Filename:
Pharm 1003 Special Populations
Updated:
2011-04-07 18:20:03
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Pharm Module
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Description:
Pharm 1003 Nonprescription Medications and Self-care Exam 4: Module 8
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  1. "Elderly" is defined as:
    • 65 yrs. of age or greater
    • Age when bodily functions begin to break down/chronic diseases become more common
  2. How much of OTC products do the Elderly buy?
    1/3
  3. 4 Reasons why elderly are at increased risk of drug-related problems?
    • 1. Body handles drugs differently
    • 2. Decreased ability to cope with illness or side effects
    • 3. Patterns of judgment impaired
    • 4. Different dug effects/side effects specific to their age group
  4. Effects of Aging
    • vising/hearing loss
    • changes in mental status
    • nutritional changes
  5. Changes in how the body acts on drugs
    • Absorption: changes in stomach/intestinal function
    • Where drug goes: changes in body fat/muscle
    • How body processes drug: decreased liver and kidney function
  6. Changes in how drug affects body
    • altered drug receptor interactions (where drug works)
    • altered body system: nerves, heart, glands, metabolism, etc.
  7. Aging Categories
    • Premature: Gestational age < 36 weeks
    • Neonate: First month of life
    • Infant: 1-12 mo.
    • Toddler: 1-3 yrs.
    • Early Childhood: 3-6 yrs.
    • Middle Childhood: 6-12 yrs.
    • Adolescent: 13-18 yrs.
  8. Age and Rec. Temp method
    • Birth to 3 mo: rectal
    • 3mo to 3yrs: rectal, armpit, ear
    • 4 to 5yrs: rectal armpit, ear, oral
    • older than 5yrs: armpit, ear, oral
  9. Measurement and Fever Indicators (degrees F)
    • Rectal: 100.5
    • Oral: 99.8
    • Armpit/axillary: 99.1
    • Ear/tympanic: 100.4
  10. When to seek medical attention for child's fever?
    • headache/nausea/vomiting
    • fever>105 F
    • delerious/hallucinating
    • dehydration
    • skin rash (purple)
    • **see hand out for dif. ages
  11. Why avoid Aspirin to treat child's fever?
    Association with Reye's Syndrome
  12. 3 considerations when dosing meds for fever
    • 1. Do NOT exceed recommended doses/day
    • 2. Be aware of dosing for certain age
    • 3. Understand side effects (age, preexisting cond.)
  13. Pregnancy Detection Method: Basal Thermometer
    • Works: meas. rise of body temp during ovulation (.1-.4)
    • Use: must meas. every morning for couple months
  14. Pregnancy Detection Method: Ovulation Predictor Test
    • Works: detects change in pH during ovulation
    • Uses: avoid sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy at this time
  15. What can cause a FALSE POSITIVE pregnancy test? (says pos, but NOT preg)
    • miscarriage/recent birth (8 wks)
    • certain meds
    • ovarian cysts: ectopic preg.
  16. What can case a FALSE NEGATIVE pregnancy test? (says neg, but ARE preg)
    • used before 1st day of missed period
    • testing cold urine
    • wax or soap residue
  17. 7 Steps required to accurately perform a pregnancy test
    • 1. wait specified days after missed period
    • 2. beware of using wax cups/other cups
    • 3. use 1st morning urine
    • 4. test immediately after urine collection
    • 5. open packages just before testing
    • 6. collect urine and dip stick or hold stick in stream
    • 7. lay device on flat service and read in time specified
  18. HCG is detectable in how many weeks after conception?
    1-2 weeks
  19. Male Condom
    • Works: prevents sperm from reaching the uterus by lining the vagina with a polyurethane membrane
    • Side effects: discomfort, less sensation, allergic rxns.
    • Prevent STI? YES
  20. Female Condom
    • Works: insert up to 8 hrs. before intercourse
    • Side effects: squeaking, decreased sensation
    • Prevent STI? YES
  21. Spermicides
    • Works: insert before intercourse, leave in up to 8 hrs
    • Side effects: may cause redness or irritation (allergic rxn)
    • Prevent STI: NO
  22. Natural Family Planning
    • Works
    • 1. Calendar/Rhythm method
    • 2. Basal Body temp.
    • 3. Cervical mucus
    • 4. Symptothermal method
    • **see handout for specifics
    • Side effects: N/A
    • Prevent STI? NO
  23. Plan B One Step
    • Works: take w/in 72 hrs of BC failure or unprotected sex; stops release of egg f/ ovary (changes womb and cervical mucus making harder for sperm to meet egg
    • Side effects: nausea, stomach pain, tender breasts, vomiting, headache
  24. Difference between male condom materials
    • 1. Latex: cheapest, stretchy, degrade with lube
    • 2. Polyurethane: less stretchy, more expensive, do NOT degrade with oil-base lube
    • 3. Lamb Cecum: more expensive, ONLY prevents preg (NOT STI)
  25. Advantages of Condoms
    • protection of preg. and some STI's
    • tourniquette effect
    • prolong male plateau's phase
  26. Disadvantages of Condoms
    • pre-planning
    • loss of pleasure/sensation
    • 4-play interruption
    • allergic rxn.
    • unable to maintain erection
  27. Steps to properly use a condom
    • 1. Open pacakge carefully
    • 2. put on before vaginal contact
    • 3. unroll over erect penis; leave 1/2 in at end
    • 4. pull off before penis gets soft
    • 5. check for tears (spermicidal lube if so)
  28. Recommended Daily Elemental Calcium Intake (mg)
    • Adults, Age<50: 1000mg
    • Adults, Age>50: 1200mg
    • Pregnat and Nursing <18: 1300mg
    • Pregnat and Nursing >19: 1000mg
  29. Recommended Daily Vitamin D Intake (IU)
    • Adults, Age<50: 400-800IU
    • Adults, Age>50: 800-1000IU
    • Pregnat and Nursing: 400-800IU
  30. What is the max amount of calcium the body can absorb at one sitting?
    500-600mg

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