unit 2-pulse

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  1. What is cardiac output and whats the formula?
    • How much blood is pumped from the heart to the arterial circulation in 1 min is the carida output (CO)
    • CO= heart rate (HR) X stroke volume (SV)
  2. define heart rate
    number of contractons of the heart/minute
  3. define Stroke Volume
    amount of blood that is pumped out of the heart with each contraction
  4. what part of the nervous system controls the heart rate?
    autonomic nervous system
  5. what part of the nervous system lowers the heart rate?
    parasympathetic nervous system
  6. what part of the nervous system raises the heart rate?
    sympathetic nervous system
  7. how to measure the strength of a pulse?
    • 0= absent, unable to palpate
    • 1+= diminished, weaker than expected
    • 2+= brisk, expected
    • 3+= increased
    • 4+= full volume, bounding
  8. what is the normal pulse rate for the healthy adult client?
    60-100 Mins at rest
  9. What is tachycardia?
  10. what is bradycardia?
  11. define dysrhythmia.
    an irregular rhythm of the heart that frequently is noted as an irregular radial pulse
  12. what is a pulse deficit?
    occurs when the apical rate is greater than the radial rate. In the case of a dysrhythmia, the heart may contract ineffectively resulting in a beat being heard at the apical site, but a pulsation not being felt at the radial pulse point
  13. what is the normal pulse rate for an infant?
  14. what is the normal pulse rate for a 12-14 year old?
  15. Name 9 factors leading to tachycardia.
    • exercise
    • fever
    • medications- epinephrine (adrenaline), levothyroxine (synthroid), beta2-adrenergic agonists (albuterol)
    • changing positions from lying down to sitting or standing
    • acute pain
    • hyperthyroidism
    • anemia, hypoxemia
    • stress, anxiety, and fear
    • hypovelemia, shock and heart failure lead to decrease CO with a compensatory increase HR
  16. Name 6 factors leading to bradycardia.
    • long-term physical fitness
    • hypothermia
    • medications- digoxin (lanoxin), beta-blockers (propranolol), calcium channel blockers (cerapamil)
    • changing position from standing or sitting to lying down
    • chronic pain
    • hypothyroidism
  17. where is the apical pulse located? how long should it be counted for?
    • located at 5th intercostal space at the left midclavicular line
    • 1 minute
  18. complications/interventions tachycardia.
    • assess/monitor for other signs and symptoms (pain, anxiety, restlessness, fatigue, low bp, oxygen saturation)
    • assess/monitor for potential med side effects
    • prevent injury
    • notify primary care provider
  19. Complications/interventions bradycardia
    • assess/monitor for other signs and symptoms (hypotension, chest pain, diaphoresis, dyspnea, altered mental status)
    • assess/monitor for potential med side effects
    • prevent injury
    • notify primary care provider
  20. Determine which of the following factors increase/decrease the pulse rate:
    calcium channel blockers
    acute pain
    blood loss
    walking on the treadmill
    • increase
    • decrease
    • decrease
    • increase
    • increase
    • increase
    • increase
  21. how would you assess pulse for a 2-months old infant, a 76 year old client with tachycardia an irregular rhythm and 56 year old client w/ an order to recieve stat dose of digoxin
    • apical
    • simultaneous check of apical and radial
    • apical
Card Set:
unit 2-pulse
2011-04-07 23:05:14
unit pulse

unit 2-pulse
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