Substance Abuse

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Substance Abuse
2011-04-07 19:41:39
Substance Abuse

Nurs 163: Test 1
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  1. Substance Abuse
    • excessive use of a chemical substance, such as drugs and alcohol, and the resulting physical and psychological dependence that interferes with life's activities.
    • 1. losing control in use of the drug
    • 2. ingesting the drug even though the drug has caused adverse conditions in the body
    • 3. demonstrating cognitive, behavioral, physiologic disturbances with the abuse of drugs or inhalants
  2. Dependence
    • condition that causes habitual, compulsive, and uncontrollable urge to use a substance
    • without it, the body has sever physical, psychological, and emotional disturbances
  3. Substance Use
    Substance Misuse
    • Use: taking chemicals for pleasure without dependence
    • Misuse: using chemicals for reasons other than their intended action
  4. Addiciton
    • causes negative outcomes after abusers stop using the substances
    • a disease caused by changes in the brain that affect human behavior
    • manifested by substance craving, seeking, and subsequent use
  5. Withdrawal Syndrome
    • may result if the drug is eliminated suddenly
    • ex. hallucinations, severe irritability, hyperactivity
  6. At Risk Drinking
    • five or more for men
    • four or more for women
    • a. 12oz beer
    • b. 5oz wine
    • c. 1.5 oz 80-proof spirits
  7. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence)
    • disease in which patient:
    • has a strong need (craving) or compulsion to consume alcohol
    • unable to limit alcohol consumption once drinking has begun (loss of control)
    • experiences physical dependence
    • has a need to increase the amt of alcohol to get the desired effect (tolerance)
  8. Alcohol Abuse
    a person does not have a stron craving loss of control, or physical dependence but has problems resulting from alcohol use. (one or more events within a year)
  9. Delirium tremens (DTs)
    • hallucinations
    • acute confusion/disorientation
    • restlessness/agitation
    • hyperactivity of ANS (tachycardia, hypertension, fever)
    • pronounced diaphoresis
    • (give benzodiazepines to prevent seizures and DTs)
  10. Stimulant
    • excite the cerebral cortex of the brain, stimulates increase in body activity
    • Examples: nicotine, caffiene, amphetamines, methamphetamines
    • Illicit and Abused: crack, cocaine, illegal meths
    • Therapeutic Effects: sense of well-being, increased mental alertness, increased capacity to work, improved motor skills, stim general metabolism
    • Large Amount SX: insomnia, tremor, restlessness, loss of motor fxn
    • Overdose: hallucination, seizure, cardiac dysrhythmia, resp distress, ataxia, fever, coma, MI
  11. Hallucinogens
    • chemical substances that produce mind altering or mental perception-altering properties
    • * Lysergic acid (LSD)
    • * Phencyclidine (PCP)
    • * 3, 4-methylenedioxymethoamphetamine (MDMA)
    • * Marijuana

    Thrill seeking effects and alteration in perception d/t changes in the NTs in the brain

    alterations in mood, sensory distortions, delusions, and depersonalization, elevated vital signs, dilated pupils, psychological dependence, suicidal or psychotic stats, flashbacks
  12. Lysergic Acid (LSD)
    • prototype and major hallucinogenic drug
    • iterrupts interaction of nerve cells and NT seretonin
    • seretonin usually regulates mood, hunger, hody temp, sexual behavior, muscle control, and sensory perception
    • colorful absorbent paper
    • effects are unpredictable (good trip/bad trip), can last up to 12 hours
    • Bizarre thoughts and feelings can lead to suicide, schizophrenia
    • SNS stimulation causes tremors and hyperreflexia
    • Strong tolerance, but does not cause drug-seeking behaviors
  13. Depressants
    • drugs that reduce the activity of the CNS
    • Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates
    • therapeutic use: treat anxiety and emotional disorders, adjuncts to sleep, for situational tension
    • route: oral or injection
    • Effects: decreased anxiety, improves sense of well-being, lower inhibitions, decreased HR/BP/RR, fatigue, confusion, impaired coordination/memory/judgement
    • Long Term: addiction, respiratory depression, cardiac arrest, death.
    • Treatment: symptomatic relief and comfort measures
  14. Opioids
    • broad term, all drugs that are made from the Asian poppy or a synthetic drug with same effects of the opium plant.
    • therapeutic fx: decrease pain perception
    • codeine, morphine, heroin, methadone, hydromorphone (dilaudid), meperidine (demerol), oxycodone (OxyContin)
    • Dependency d/t analgesia and euphoria
    • Effects in CNS and GI system (depression)
  15. Inhalants
    • breathable chemical vapors that produce psychoactive effects
    • popular in children, adolescents, and young adults
    • Solvents: exhilarating high (paint thinners, gasoline, glues, paper correction fluid, felt-tip markers)
    • Gases: (butane lighters, propane tanks, whipping cream aerosols, spray paints, hair and deodorant sprays, chloroform, ether, nitrous oxide)
    • Nitrites: (cyclohexyl nitrite, amyl nitrite, butyl nitrite)
    • produce anesthetic effects, slow body fxn, feel intoxicated, lessinhibited, less control
    • can cause death from cardiac failure, suffocation
    • Irreversible Effects: hearing losses, limb spasms, brain damage, bone marrow suppression
  16. Steroids
    • anabolic-androngenic steroids (muscle building, increased masculinity)
    • synthetic substances, mimic actions of testosterone
    • boost athletic performance, but with complications