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What is ‘a family of compounds that includes Triglycerides (fats & oils) phospholipids (lecithin) & sterols (cholesterol)’ classified as?
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
What are fatty acids?
chains of carbon atoms with an acid group at one end & hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms
Explain triglycerides? Give 3 facts about triglycerides.
The major class of dietary lipids. Made up of units known as Fatty Acids & glycerol.
- They provide protection, insulation & energy
- They may be either solids or liquids
- Any excess CHO, fats, proteins and oil will be stored as triglycerides
An organic compound that serves as the backbone for triglycerides
Explain what a fatty acid is & the structure
- - It is a chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen attached
- it has an acid group at one end and a methyl group at the other
- - The tail is a hydrophobic
- - The head is a hydrophilic
Name the 3 types of fatty acids
- -Saturated, mono-unsaturated & polyunsaturated
- -These refer to the number of hydrogen bonds attached to the hydrogen carbon tail
Explain Saturated Fatty Acids & where they are found (4 points)
- They contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms.
- They have all single bonds between the carbons.
- Solid at room temperature
Explain Unsaturated fatty acids (4 points)
- -Contain double bonds between carbons causing kinks in the molecule shape
- -Liquid at room temperature
- -2 types - Monounsaturated & polyunsaturated (2 or more points of unsaturation)
What 2 fatty acids can the body not make?
Linoleic (omega 6) & linolenic acids (omega 3)
How many carbon atoms from the end of the chain, is the double bond in a Linoleic acid?
What 2 types of acids do Linolenic Acid produce?
EPA & DHA
When are Trans Fatty Acids formed?
when liquid oils are made into solid fats (partial hydrogenation)
Explain the process of hydrogenation & the 2 things that result
-Plant oils are exposed to hydrogen at high temperature with a catalyst
- -Some double bonds become single bonds
- -Other double bonds are converted from CIS to trans configuration
Do trans fats lower LDL cholesterol or HDL cholesterol?
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