Card Set Information
kinesiology anaerobic exercise
Training for sport and performance
How much ATP is stored in the muscle cells?
Since muscle activity requires a constant supply of ATP,,,
metabolic pathways must exist in the cell to produce ATP rapidly
How big is a molecule of ATP?
atp is made of _+_
From ATP how do you get a muscle contraction or Energy?
You get both...
ATP --> ADP +Pi =
What is P
ATP supply in cell =
produces a few muscle twitches
3 Metabolic Pathways for ATP production
2. Degradation of
glucose or glycogen
-Krebs Cycle (use glucose, fat, protein, and CHO)
Anaerobic metabolism consists of
What metabolic pathways uses this?
CP and glycolysis
Aerobic metabolism consists of O
What metabolic pathways use this?
Control of Bioenergetics
Biochemical pathways resulting in the production of ATP are regulated by precise control systems.
Each pathway contains as number of reactions that are catalyzed by specific
In general if ample substrate (eg. ADP) is available , an
the # of enzymes present results
rate of chemical reactions.
Therefore the regulation of one or more enzymes in a pathway provides a way of controlling the rate of that particular pathway.
How does a
rate limiting enzyme
control the speed of reactions?
Rate limiting enzymes are found
in metabolic pathways
The activity of rate limiting enzymes are regulated by
(eg. the product)
Modulators are substances thate
increase or decrease
ATP is rate limiting enzyme on lactic acid or ADP.
Control of ATP-CP system
Creatine Phosphate is also called
CP breakdown is regulated by?
creatine kinase activity
What are modulators of CP?
At the onset of exercise ATP-> ADP +Pi
This reacton provides us with what ?
Provides energy for muscle contraction
The increase in ADP simulates creatine kinase to increase the breakdown of CP and resynthesize ATP.
Creatine kinase is the ___enzyme for CP.
Control of Glycolysis
most important rate limiting enzyme
Where does PFK occur in glycolysis?
near the beginning of glycolysis
When exercise begins ADP and Pi levels _______ PFK activity.
At rest ATP levels are
this___ PFK activity.
another important regulatory enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism
Important for glycolysis. Phosphorylase is responsible for the breakdown of glycogen to___.
Phosphorylase is an enzyme but is not considered a___ enzyme.
Phosphorylase plays and important role in glycolysis b/c it provides glucose for entry into___.
CP is for short duration or intermitent work about 10 seconds. What causes fatigue ?
Decrease in CP
Glycolysis if for single duration or intermitent work 2-5 minutes. What causes fatigue?
increase in metabolic acidosis, pain.
Mitochondrial respiration (aerobic) of for continuous work. Last less than 5 min. What causes fatigue?
dehydration, hyperthermia, muscle damage
organized sequence of exercise
stimulates adaptations in anatomy and physiology
What are 2 kinds of adaptations ?
Training adaptations or chronic adaptations
Training =Winning or increase performance
This is determined by?
quality of training
Principles of training
training should be based on the specific demands or needs of the sport event
the better one can understand these demands or needs..
the more likely one can develop a suitable training program
What do muscle power tests measure?
measures the ability of a person to regulate ATP during the tine interval of the test
Predicting maximal muscle power & anaerobic capacity
Can you measure the muscle capacity for non mitochondrial ATP regulation?
The muscles capacity for non-mitochondrial (anaerobic) ATP regulation is
to measure accurately. So several lab tests have been develpoed that try to measure
These are some
Short term tests
sargents jump and reach
margaria power test
these are some
intermediate term tests
muscle metabolic accumulation
accumulated oxygen deficit
What is the Margaria Power test?
Person running up stairs.
it is timed
and they do get a headstart
this tests CP
What is Windgate Test?
maximal pedaling for 30 seconds againsts a constant load
resistance is set based upon a predetermined equation
revolutions are counted
Resistance is 7.5% of the body weight (kg)
up to 10% on trained athletes
Define Mean power
Define Peak power
Define Fatigue index
the lowest power output
divided by the peak power.