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How much ATP is stored in the muscle cells?
Since muscle activity requires a constant supply of ATP,,,
metabolic pathways must exist in the cell to produce ATP rapidly
How big is a molecule of ATP?
atp is made of _+_
adenosine component (sugar) +PO3
From ATP how do you get a muscle contraction or Energy?
You get both...
ATP --> ADP +Pi = ENERGY=muscle contraction
What is Pi?
ATP supply in cell =
produces a few muscle twitches
3 Metabolic Pathways for ATP production
- 1. Creatine Phosphate Breakdown
- 2. Degradation of glucose or glycogen ->glycolysis
- 3. oxidative metabolism-Krebs Cycle (use glucose, fat, protein, and CHO)
Anaerobic metabolism consists of NO O2
What metabolic pathways uses this?
CP and glycolysis
Aerobic metabolism consists of O2
What metabolic pathways use this?
Control of Bioenergetics
Biochemical pathways resulting in the production of ATP are regulated by precise control systems.
- Each pathway contains as number of reactions that are catalyzed by specific Enzymes.
- In general if ample substrate (eg. ADP) is available , an increase in the # of enzymes present results in an increase rate of chemical reactions.
- Therefore the regulation of one or more enzymes in a pathway provides a way of controlling the rate of that particular pathway.
How does a rate limiting enzyme control the speed of reactions?
- Rate limiting enzymes are found early in metabolic pathways
- The activity of rate limiting enzymes are regulated by modulators (eg. the product)
- Modulators are substances thate increase or decrease enzyme activity.
ATP is rate limiting enzyme on lactic acid or ADP.
Control of ATP-CP system
Creatine Phosphate is also called
CP breakdown is regulated by?
creatine kinase activity
What are modulators of CP?
- ADP stimulates
- ATP inhibits
At the onset of exercise ATP-> ADP +Pi
This reacton provides us with what ?
Provides energy for muscle contraction
The increase in ADP simulates creatine kinase to increase the breakdown of CP and resynthesize ATP.
Creatine kinase is the ___enzyme for CP.
ADP +CP__creatine kinase_____ ATP +C
Control of Glycolysis
The most important rate limiting enzyme is?
Where does PFK occur in glycolysis?
near the beginning of glycolysis
When exercise begins ADP and Pi levels _______ PFK activity.
At rest ATP levels are high this___ PFK activity.
inhibits PFK activity
another important regulatory enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism
Important for glycolysis. Phosphorylase is responsible for the breakdown of glycogen to___.
Phosphorylase is an enzyme but is not considered a___ enzyme.
Phosphorylase plays and important role in glycolysis b/c it provides glucose for entry into___.
CP is for short duration or intermitent work about 10 seconds. What causes fatigue ?
Decrease in CP
Glycolysis if for single duration or intermitent work 2-5 minutes. What causes fatigue?
increase in metabolic acidosis, pain.
Mitochondrial respiration (aerobic) of for continuous work. Last less than 5 min. What causes fatigue?
dehydration, hyperthermia, muscle damage
the organized sequence of exercise that stimulates adaptations in anatomy and physiology.
What are 2 kinds of adaptations ?
Training adaptations or chronic adaptations
Training =Winning or increase performance
This is determined by?
the quality of training
Principles of training
training should be based on the specific demands or needs of the sport event
the better one can understand these demands or needs..
the more likely one can develop a suitable training program
What do muscle power tests measure?
measures the ability of a person to regulate ATP during the tine interval of the test
Predicting maximal muscle power & anaerobic capacity
Can you measure the muscle capacity for non mitochondrial ATP regulation?
The muscles capacity for non-mitochondrial (anaerobic) ATP regulation is impossible to measure accurately. So several lab tests have been develpoed that try to measure anerobic capacity.
These are some Short term tests
- sargents jump and reach
- margaria power test
these are some intermediate term tests
- windgate test
- isokinetic test
- muscle metabolic accumulation
- accumulated oxygen deficit
What is the Margaria Power test?
- Person running up stairs.
- it is timed
- and they do get a headstart
- this tests CP
What is Windgate Test?
- maximal pedaling for 30 seconds againsts a constant load
- resistance is set based upon a predetermined equation
- revolutions are counted
- Resistance is 7.5% of the body weight (kg)
- up to 10% on trained athletes
Define Mean power
mean work output over 30 sec interval
Define Peak power
highest power during any 5 second interval
Define Fatigue index
Difference between the peak power and the lowest power output divided by the peak power.