patho

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LaurenFleming
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78301
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patho
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2011-04-08 13:15:58
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patho
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lecture 2 ppts
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  1. Platelets are also called
    Thrombocytes
  2. What is the normal range for platelets
    normally 150,000 to 400,000 platelets in each microliter of blood
  3. Platelet production os controlled by a protein called....???
    Thrombopoietin

    *causes proliferation and maturation of megakaryocytes

    *sources of thrombopoieten include the liver, kidney, smooth muscle, and bone marrow
  4. Non-Neoplastic WHC Disorders
    • Neutropenia
    • Infectious Mononucleosis
  5. Neoplastic Disorders of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid origin
    • Leukemias
    • Malignant Lymphomas
    • Plasma Cell Dyscrasias
  6. -pinia
    deficiency
  7. Neutophilla
    excess
  8. Deficiency in granulocytes
    granulocytopenia
  9. Accelerated removal (infammation and infection)

    (Causes of Neutropenia)
    Removal of neutrophils from the circulation exceeds production
  10. *Cytotoxic drugs used in cancer therapy
    (causes of Neutopenia)
    Predictable damage to precursor cells, usually dose dependent
  11. Phenothiazine, thiouracil, chloramphenicol, phenylbutazone, and others
    idiosyncratic depression of bone marrow function
  12. Hydantoinates, primidone, and others

    (Causes of Neutropenia)
    Intramedullary destruction of granulocytes
  13. Immune destruction

    (Causes of Neutropenia)
    Immunologic mechanisms with cytolysis or leukoagglutination
  14. Neoplasms involving bone marrow (leukemia and lymphomas)

    (Causes of Neutropenia)
    Overgrowth of neoplastic cells, which crowd out granulopoietic precursors
  15. Idiopathic neutropenia that occurs in the absence of other disease or provoking influence

    (Causes of Neutropenia)
    Autoimmune reaction
  16. Felty's syndrome

    (Causes of Neutropenia)
    Intrasplenic destruction of neutrophils
  17. Aquired Neutropenia
    is neutropenia that is caused by something else like cytotoxic drugs etc.
  18. Transient means...???
    temporary
  19. Infectious Mononucleosis PATHOGENESIS
    *Self-limiting lymphoproliferative (increasing number of lymphocytes) disorder caused by Epstein-Barr virus, a member of the herpes virus family

    *EBV-infected B lymphocytes produce unusual antibodies that appear in the blood

    *Transmission through oral contact with EBV-contaminated sliva
  20. Infectious Mononucleosis Clinical Course of Infection
    • *4-8 week incubation period
    • *Most persons recover without incident
    • *Disease may persist for 2-3 months
  21. Neoplastic WBC disorders
    • Leukemias
    • Malignant Lymphomas
    • Plasma cell Dyscrasias
  22. Leukemias
    • (malignant neoplasms derived from hematopoietic stem cells)
    • -Bone marrow cells that give rise to blood cells are the hematopoietic stem cells

    • *Acute Leukemia
    • *Chronic Leukemia
  23. Malignant Lymphoma
    • (solid tumors arising in lymph nodes)
    • -Can spread to organs like the spleen

    • *Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
    • *Hodgkin Lymphoma
  24. Plasma Cell Dyscrasias
    (Neoplasms of immunoglobulin-producing plasma cells)

    *Multiple Myeloma
  25. Acute Leukemias (sudden onset)
    • Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
    • -most common leukemia in childhood
    • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
    • -Chiefly an adult disease, although seen in children and young adults
  26. Chronic Leukemias (Slow course)
    • Chronic lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
    • -Mainly a disorder of older persons
    • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
    • -Adults between 30-50 years
    • -Philadelphia chromosome
  27. The lymphoma represents malignancies or cells
    derived from lymphoid cells and tissues
  28. Hodgkin's disease is a group of cancers characterized by....???
    Reed-Sternberg cells that begins as a malignancy in a single lymph node and then spreads to contiguous lymph nodes
  29. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas represent a group of...??
    Heterogeneous lymphocytic cancers that are multicentric in origin and spread to various tissues throughout the body, including the bone marrow
  30. Both types of lymphomas are characterized by..??
    Manifestations related to uncontrolled lymph node and lymphoid tissue growth, bone marrow involvement, and constitutional symptoms (fever, fatigue, weight loss) related to the rapid growth of abnormal lymphoid cells and tissues
  31. Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas most originate in
    lymph nodes and 80-85% arise from B-cells
  32. Alterations in Hemostatsis
    • Hypercoagulability States
    • Bleeding Disorders
  33. Hypercoagulability States
    • Increased Platelet Function
    • Increased Clotting Activity
  34. Bleeding Disorders
    • Platelet Defects
    • Coagulation Defects
    • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
    • Vascular Disorders (bleeding from weakened blood vessels)
  35. Hypercoagulability states increase the ...???
    risk of clot or thrombus formation in either the arterial or venous circulations
  36. Arterial thrombi are associated with..???
    Conditions that produce turbulent blood flow and platelet adherence
  37. Venous thrombi are associated with...??
    Conditions that causes stasis of blood flow with increased concentrations of coagulation factors
  38. Hypercoagulability States
    • Increased Platelet Function
    • Increased Clotting Activity
  39. Increased Platelet Function
    Disturbances in blood flow, endothelial damage, and increased sensitivity of platelets can cause adhesion and aggregation of platelets
  40. Increased Clotting Activity
    Caused by factors that increase the activation of the coagulation system
  41. Conditions Associated With Hypercoagulability States
    • Increased Platelet Function
    • Accelerated Activity of the Clotting System
  42. Increased Platelet Function
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Smoking
    • Elevated blood lipid and cholesterol levels
  43. Accelerated Activity of the Clotting System
    • Pregnancy and the puerperium
    • Use of oral contraceptives
    • Postsurgical state
    • Immobility
    • Congestive heart failure
    • Malignant diseases
  44. Bleeding Disorders
    • Platelet Defects
    • Coagulation Defects
    • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
  45. Platelet Defects
    • Thrombocytopenia
    • Impaired Platelet Function
  46. Coagulation Defects
    • Impaired Synthesis of Coagulation Factors
    • Hereditary Disorders
    • -Hemophilia A-clotting factor 8
    • -Von Willebrand Disease
  47. Bleeding disorders are caused by ...???
    Defects associated with platelets, coagulation factors, and vessel integrity
  48. Disorders of platelet plug formation include...???
    A decrease in platelet numbers due to inadequate platelet production( bone marrow dysfunction), excess platelet destruction (throbocytopenia), abnormal platelet function (thrombocytopathia), or defects in von Willebrand factor.
  49. Impairment of the coagulation stage of hemostasis is....??
    caused by a deficiency in one or more of the clotting factors
  50. Disorders of blood vessel integrity result from...???
    Structurally weak vessels or vessel damage due to inflammation and immune mechanisms

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