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Under the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Americans should reduce sodium intake to less than _______ mg and further reduce intake to _______ mg among persons who are ___ and older, and those of any age who are African American or have hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease.
Under the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Americans should consume less than ___% of calories from saturated fatty acids by replacing them with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids
Under the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Americans should consume less than _____ mg per day of dietary cholesterol.
What four items should be the main basis of any diet?
- Whole Grains
- Low-Fat Dairy
Under the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, women capable of becoming pregnant should choose foods that supply ____ _____, and should consume 400 micrograms of synthetic _____ _____ per day.
Under the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should consume ___ to ____ ounces of seafood per week from a variety of seafood types. However, due to their high methyl mercury content, limit white (albacore) tuna to ___ ounces per week.
What 4 types of fish should be avoided?
Also, what type of supplement should pregnant women take?
- 8-12 ounces
- 6 ounces
- Tilefish, shark, swordfish, and king mackerel
- Iron supplement
Under the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, individuals ages 50 and older should consume foods fortified with what vitamin?
According to the MyPyramid Food Guidance System, for a 2,000 calorie diet, Americans should consume ____ oz of grain every day, _____ cups of vegetables, _____ cups of fruits, _____ cups of milk, and ______ oz of meat and beans.
- 6 oz Grains
- 2 1/2 cups of Veggies
- 2 cups of Fruits
- 3 cups of milk
- 5 1/2 oz of meat and beans
What does DRI stand for?
Dietary Reference Intake
What does AI stand for?
What does UL stand for?
What does EAR stand for?
Estimated Average Requirement
What does RDA stand for?
Recommended Dietary Allowance
RDAs are generally about ____% over the EAR, although this is not true for all nutrients.
Where there is not sufficient evidence to determine an EAR, an _____ is established.
True or False:
RDAs take into consideration whether a nutrient may be helpful in preventing chronic disease.
This is the maximum intake that is unlikely to cause adverse effects in almost all (97%) people. This applies to chronic daily intake, not to a single intake in one day. It refers to intake from all dietary sources, not just supplements.
UL (Upper Limit)
These are the specific recommendations for nutrients that provide energy, such as carbs, fat, and protein. This represents a healthy intake as part of an overall intake.
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
What does AMDR stand for?
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
This is one of the most important concepts in nutrition. It is defined as how well a food provides for nutrient needs relative to how well it provides caloric needs. Since hunger is satisfied by meeting caloric needs generally, other nutrients need to be present along with calories, since there are no nutrient-specific mechanisms to seek out these foods.
What is the calculation for nutrient density?
% of DRI for a nutrient provided by food/ % of daily kcal intake provided by the food
A food with a nutrient density of _____ would be a good source of a nutrient.
Nutrient density is the primary reason for limiting ______ intake, since it provides no other nutrients than carbohydrate, and is therefore what is commonly referred to as empty calories.
What compares the total amount of glucose appearing in blood after eating a specific food with the total amount of glucose appearing in blood after eating the same amount of carbohydrate as glucose (sometimes white bread is the reference)?
High ________ foods, since they are quickly digested to glucose, are high glycemic index.
Foods high in ________ and ________ are lower glycemic index since they must be converted to glucose in the liver before release into the blood stream.
Fructose and Lactose
Dietary fiber ________ (highers/lowers) glycemic index?
Fat _______ (slows/speeds up) digesting so _________ (lowers/highers) glycemic index.
The glycemic _______ is the glycemic index of a food times the amount of carbs in a serving of the food (divided by 100).
________ glycemic index foods should be consumed during and after long endurance events, while _______ glycemic index foods should be consumed prior to long endurance events.
What are some examples of high glycemic index foods (> 85)?
- White Bread
- Whole Wheat Bread
- Sports Drink (gatorade)
What are some examples of moderate glycemic index foods (60-85)?
- Potato Chips
What are some examples of low glycemic index foods (<60)?
- Baked Beans/Lentils
What are some examples of soluble fibers and sources?
- Pectin: apples, jelly
- Gums: oat bran, dried beans
- Carrageenan: a food additive isolated from sea weed, used in ice cream, salad dressings
What are some examples of insoluble fibers and sources?
- Cellulose: corn, wheat, rice bran
- Hemicellulose: corn, wheat, rice bran
- Lignin: corn, wheat, rice bran
The recommendation for dietary fiber is ____ g/1000 kcal, or about _______ g/d, which is about double what most Americans consume.
Soluble fibers reduces serum ________ by about 5%
The American Heart Association's Nutrition Committee advises limiting total fat intake to less than ____ - _____% of total calories each day.
25-35% (he recommends 30%)
The American Heart Association's Nutrition Committee advises limiting saturated fat intake to less than ___% of total daily calories.
The American Heart Association's Nutrition Committee advises limiting trans fat intake to less than ___ % of total daily calories.
The American Heart Association's Nutrition Committee advises limiting cholesterol intake to less than _____ mg per day, for most people. If the patient has coronary heart disease or and LDL cholesterol level above 100 mg/dL, cholesterol intake should be limited to ______ mg per day.
What is the monounsaturated fatty acid in the diet?
What is the richest source of unsaturated fat? What are three other sources?
- Olive Oil
- Avocado, Peanut Oil, Canola Oil
Intake of _________ reduces risk of heart disease primarily by reducing blood-clotting and also possibly reducing serum total and LDL cholesterol levels.
Omega-3 fatty acids
Where are the two most important omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentanoic acid [EPA] and docosahexanoic acid [DHA]) found?
Cold water (sea) fish
What are Knehans defininitions of obesity for males and females?
- Greater than 19% body fat in males
- Greater than 26% body fat in females
What is the BMI scale?
- Below 18.5 -- Underweight
- 18.5-24.9 -- Normal
- 25.0-29.9 -- Overweight
- 30.0 and above -- Obese
What are the three benefits of fiber?
- Relieves constipation
- Reduces colon cancer risk
- Reduces serum cholesterol (soluble fiber only)
What are the saturated fats?
- Stearic Acid (18:0)
- Palmitic Acid (16:0)
- Myristic Acid (14:0)
- Lauric Acid (12:0)
This saturated fat is found in beef and pork, and does not increase serum cholesterol.
This saturated fat is found in pork. It increases serum cholesterol "somewhat"
Palmitic Acid (16:0)
These two saturated fats are dairy fats. They increase serum cholesterol the most.
- Myristic Acid (14:0)
- Lauric Acid (12:0)
This is the monounsaturated fat. It is found in olive oil, avocados, peanuts, and canola oil. It decreases serum cholesterol without reducing HDL cholesterol, and therefore reduces the risk of heart disease.
Oleic Acid (18:1)
What are the two polyunsaturated fats?
- Linoleic Acid (18:2) (vegetable oils)
- Linolenic Acid (18:3) (flaxseen oil)
This polyunsaturated fat is an essential fatty acid. It decreases serum cholesterol including HDL cholesterol, and therefore has little effect on heart disease, though some think it is beneficial.
Linoleic Acid (18:2) (vegetable oil)
This polyunsaturated fatty acid is an essential fatty acid, and is the omega-3 fatty acid.
Linolenic Acid (18:3) (Flaxseed oil)
Omega-3 fatty acids increase synthesis of what two molecules? What is the effect of these molecules?
- TXA3 & PGI3
- TXA3 does not increase platelet aggregation, and PGI3 is a vasodilator
Consuming cholesterol in foods results in a _____ less increase in serum cholesterol levels compared to saturated fat or trans fat.
Children at or above ______th percentile are considered obese, while those at or above the _____th percentile are overweight.
- 95th percentile
- 85th percentile