The cells of living things contain _________. These contain ____ which control the cells activities.
________ cells also contain chromosomal material, which control the ________ cells’ activities.
Pieces of chromosome can be transferred from an organism to a bacterium, which is then able to produce substances it would not normally be able to make. This is called _______ __________.
The sequence in the process of genetic engineering of human insulin by bacteria is:
-The _____ ____ is identified
-The ________ is removed from the bacterial cell and opened up
-The ________ ____ is removed from the human cell and inserted into the plasmid. The genetically altered plasmid is placed inside a new ________ ____
-The plasmid replicates inside the bacterial cell and _______ is produced
Genetic Engineering shows how bacteria can be made to produce a new substance (_______) which they would not normally be able to make. However when the human ______ ____ is transferred to the bacteria they are able to make insulin.
Insulin is a substance certain human cells can make which helps to control blood sugar levels. Some individuals cannot produce insulin and suffer from a condition called _______. These diabetics must have daily injections of insulin to survive
Using genetically engineered bacteria to produce insulin allows _____ ________ of human insulin to be produced quickly. This is important because the number of diabetics is _________ and diabetics are living longer than before, therefore there is an increasing demand for insulin
Other substances that can be obtained by genetic engineering include ______ _______ and the ______ ______.
_______ ____ is often used to improve certain desired characteristics in animals of plants. It involves carefully selecting those animals or plants that best show the characteristic the breeder wishes to improve and then allowing only those animals or plants to breed.
Selective breeding can take many years and many generations of breeding the plants or animals to improve the ______ _________. Also not every individual will possess the improved characteristic.
In genetic engineering humans can alter the genetic makeup of a species by ______ _____ which control the particular desired characteristic to animal or plant embryos. When these animals or plants embryos mature they possess the desired characteristic and can ____ __ __ to their offspring.
pass it on
Genetic engineering can alter a species in ___ _________ compared to the many generations required for selective breeding.
_________ _________ contain enzymes produced by bacteria. Non-biological enzymes do not contain these enzymes
The enzymes in biological detergents enable them to remove stains at ____ _________ than non-biological detergents.
The advantages of being able to use biological detergents at lower temperatures:
-____ ______ is used because less energy is needed to heat the water to the lower temperatures;
-______ to delicate fabrics is prevented by washing them at a lower temperature
Some stains on clothes are caused by _______ present in milk, blood or grass. The enzymes in biological detergents remove these stains by digesting the proteins into _______ substances that can be easily washed away.
__________ are substances which prevent the growth of micro-organisms like bacteria.
____________ is a technique in which enzymes can be fixed onto the surface of jelly beads. This technique makes it much easier for enzyme to be _______ from the end-products.
A range of antibiotics is needed in the treatment of bacterial diseases because:
-no one antibiotic kills ___ _____ of bacteria;
- if a patient is _______ to one antibiotic then another can be used;
-bacteria can become ________ to an antibiotic
__________ ____ __________ using immobilised enzymes works once the enzymes have been immobilised by attaching them to the surface of glass beads. The immobilised enzymes are placed into the fermenter. Fresh nutrients are then continuously fed into the fermenter while at the same time an equal quantity of ________ is removed.
Continuous flow processing
Continuous flow processing using immobilised enzymes has many advantages over _____ ___________.
_____ ________ involves adding the free enzyme and substrates, allowing the reaction to take place and then having to separate the enzyme from the product.
Continuous flow processing is more efficient and cost-effective because the product does not need to be ________ from the enzyme and the enzyme can be _____. No time is lost unlike in batch processing where all the equipment must be cleaned and sterilised before the next batch can be set up. The enzyme is not discarded in continuous flow processing, therefore there is no problem with waste disposal.