Poly Sci test 3

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amydavis
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78346
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Poly Sci test 3
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2011-04-08 16:45:39
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political science
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chapters 7,8, and 9
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  1. nodes
    Groups of people who belong to, are candidates of, or work for a political party, but do not necessarily work together or hold similar policy preferences.
  2. party organization
    A specific political party's leaders and workers at the national, state, and local levels.
  3. Party in government
    The group of officeholders who belong to a specific political party and were elected as candidates of that party.
  4. Party in the electorate
    The group of citizens who identify with a specific political party.
  5. Party system
    A period in which the names of the major political parties, their supporters, and the issues dividing them remain relatively stable.
  6. Party principle
    The idea that a political party exists as an organization distinct from its elected officials or party leaders.
  7. Spoils system
    The practice of rewarding party supporters with benefits like federal government positions.
  8. New Deal Coalition
    The assemblage of groups who aligned with and supported the Democratic Party in support of New Deal policies during the fifth party system, including African Americans, Catholics, Jewish people, union members, and white southerners.
  9. Parties in service
    The role of the parties in recruiting, training, fundraising, and campaigning for congressional and presidential candidates. This aspect of party organization grew more prominent during the sixth party system.
  10. Realignment
    A change in the size or composition of the party coalitions or in the nature of the issues that divide the parties. Realignments typically occur within an election cycle or two, but they can also occur gradually over the course of a decade or longer.
  11. Crosscutting
    Issues that raise disagreements within a party coalition or between political parties about what government should do.
  12. National committee
    An American political party's principal organization, comprised of party representatives from each state.
  13. Political action committee (PAC)
    An interest group or a division of an interest group that can raise money to contribute to campaigns or to spend on ads in support of candidates. The amount it can receive from each of its donors and its expenditures on federal electioneering are strictly limited.
  14. 527 organization
    A tax-exempt group formed primarily to influence elections through voter mobilization efforts and issue ads that do not directly endorse or oppose a candidate. Unlike political action committees, they are not subject to contribution limits and spending caps.
  15. Brand names
    The use of party names to evoke certain positions or issues. For instance, "Adidas" might immediately call to mind athleticsin the same way that "Democrat" might remind you of environmental policies or universal health care.
  16. Political machine
    An unofficial patronage system within a political party that seeks to gain political power and government contracts, jobs, and other benefits for party leaders, workers,and supporters.
  17. Caucus (congressional)
    The organization of Democrats within the House and Senate that meets to discuss and debate the party's positions on various issues in order to reach a consensus and to assign leadership positions.
  18. Conference
    The organization of Republicans within the House and Senate that meets to discuss and debate the party's positions on various issues in order to reach a consensus and to assign leadership positions.
  19. Polarized
    The alignment of both parties' members with their own party issues and priorities, with little crossover support for the other party's goals.
  20. Party identification (party ID)
    A citizen's loyalty to a specific political party.
  21. Activists
    People who dedicate their time, effort, and money to supporting a political party or particular candidates.
  22. Running tally
    A frequently updated mental record that a person uses to incorporate new information, like the information that leads a citizen to identify with a particular political party.
  23. Dealignment
    A decline in the percentage of citizens who identify with one of the major parties, usually over the course of a decade or longer.
  24. Party coalitions
    The groups that identify with a political party, usually described in demographic terms such as African American Democrats or evangelical Republicans.
  25. Primary
    A ballot vote in which citizens select a party's nominee for the general election.
  26. Caucus (electoral)
    A local meeting in which party members select a party's nominee for the general election.
  27. Nominating convention
    A meeting held by each party every four years at which states' delegates select the party's presidential and vice presidential nominees and approve the party platform.
  28. Party platform
    A set of objectives outlining the party's issue positions and priorities.Candidates are not required to support their party's platform.
  29. Conditional party government
    The theory that lawmakers from the same party will cooperate to develop policy proposals.
  30. Backbenchers
    Legislators who do not hold leadership positions within their party caucus or conference.
  31. Unified government
    A situation in which one party holds a majority of seats in the House and Senate and the president is a member of that same party.
  32. Party in power
    Under unified government, the party that controls the House, Senate, and the presidency. Under divided government, the president's party.
  33. Divided government
    A situation in which the House, Senate, and presidency are not controlled by the same party, such as if Democrats hold the majority of House and Senate seats, and the president is a Republican.
  34. Responsible parties
    A system in which each political party's candidates campaign on the party platform, work together in office to implement the platform, and are judged by voters based on whether they achieved the platform's objectives.
  35. Duverger's law
    The principle that in a democracy with single-member districts and plurality voting, like the United States, only two parties' candidates will have a realistic chance of winning political office.
  36. Single-member districts
    An electoral system in which every elected official represents a geographically defi ned area, such as a state or congressional district, and each area elects one representative.
  37. Party ratio
    The proportions of seats in the House and Senate that are controlled by each major party.
  38. Seat shift
    A change in the number of seats held by Republicans and Democrats in the House or Senate.
  39. Normal election
    A typical congressional election in which the reelection rate is high, and the influences on House and Senate contests are largely local.
  40. Nationalized election
    An atypical congressional election in which the reelection rate is relatively low for one party's House and Senate incumbents and national-level issues exert more influence than usual on House and Senate races.
  41. Incumbent
    A politician running for reelection to the office he or she currently holds.
  42. Challenger
    A politician running for an office that he or she does not hold at the time of the election. Challengers run against incumbents or in open-seat elections.
  43. Retrospective evaluation
    A citizen's judgment of an officeholder's job performance
  44. Nomination
    The selection of a particular candidate to run for office in a general election as a representative of his or her political party.
  45. Open primary
    A primary election in which any registered voter can participate in the contest, regardless of party affiliation.
  46. Closed primary
    A primary election in which only registered members of a particular political party can vote.
  47. General election
    The election in which voters cast ballots for House members, senators, and (every four years) a president and vice president.
  48. Absentee ballot
    A voting ballot submitted by mail before an election. Voters use absentee ballots if they will be unable to go to the polls on Election Day.
  49. Plurality voting
    A voting system in which the candidate who receives the most votes within a geographic area wins the election, regardless of whether that candidate wins a majority (more than half) of the votes.
  50. Majority voting
    A voting system in which a candidate must win more than 50 percent of votes to win the election. If no candidate wins enough votes to take office, a runoff election is held between the top two vote-getters.
  51. Runoff election
    Under a majority voting system, a second election held only if no candidate wins a majority of the votes in the first general election. Only the top two vote getters in the first election compete in the runoff.
  52. Undervote
    Casting a ballot that is either incomplete or cannot be counted.
  53. Primary
    A ballot vote in which citizens select a party's nominee for the general election.
  54. Caucus (electoral)
    A local meeting in which party members select a party's nominee for the general election.
  55. Delegates
    Individuals who attend their party's national convention and vote to select their party's nominee for the presidency. Delegates are elected in a series of primaries and caucuses that occur during winter and spring of an election year.
  56. Proportional allocation
    During the presidential primaries, the practice of determining the number of convention delegates allotted to each candidate based on the percentage of the popular vote cast for each candidate. All Democratic primaries and caucuses use this system, as do some states's Republican primaries and caucuses.
  57. Winner-take-all
    During the presidential primaries, the practice of assigning all of a given state’s delegates to the candidate who receives the most popular votes. Some states's Republican primaries and caucuses use this system.
  58. Regional primaries
    A practice whereby several states in the same area of the country hold presidential primaries or caucuses on the same day.
  59. Frontloading
    The practice of states moving their presidential primaries or caucuses to take place earlier in the nomination process, often in the hopes of exerting more influence over the outcome.
  60. Superdelegates
    Democratic members of Congress and party officials selected by their colleagues to be delegates at the party's presidential nominating convention. (Republicans do not have superdelegates.) Unlike delegates selected in primaries or caucuses, superdelegates are not committed to a particular candidate and can exercise their judgment when deciding how to vote at the convention.
  61. Electoral college
    The body that votes to select America's president and vice president based on the popular vote in each state. Each candidate nominates a slate of electors who are selected to attend the meeting of the college if their candidate wins the most votes in a state or district.
  62. Swing states
    In a presidential race, highly competitive states in which both major party candidates stand a good chance of winning the state's electoral votes.
  63. Election cycle
    The two-year period between general elections.
  64. Open seat
    An elected position for which there is no incumbent.
  65. Permanent campaign
    The actions officeholders take throughout the election cycle to build support for their reelection.
  66. Political business cycle
    Attempts by elected officials to manipulate the economy before elections by increasing economic growth and reducing unemployment and inflation, with the goal of improving evaluations of their performance in office.
  67. Wholesale politics
    A mode of campaigning that involves indirect contact with citizens, such as running campaign ads.
  68. Retail politics
    A mode of campaigning in which a candidate or campaign staff contacts citizens directly, as would happen at a rally, a talk before a small group, or a one-on-one meeting between a candidate and a citizen.
  69. Mobilization
    Motivating supporters to vote in an election and, in some cases, helping them get to the polls on Election Day.
  70. GOTV/the ground game
    A campaign's efforts to "get out the vote" or make sure their supporters vote on Election Day.
  71. Push polling
    A type of survey in which the questions are presented in a biased way in an attempt to influence the respondent.
  72. Campaign platform
    A candidate's description of his or her issue positions and the kinds of policies he or she will seek to enact while in office.
  73. Opposition research
    Attempts by a candidate's campaign or other groups of supporters to uncover embarrassing or politically damaging information about the candidate's opponent.
  74. Attack ads
    Campaign advertising that criticizes a candidate's opponent - typically by making potentially damaging claims about the opponent's background or record - rather than focusing on positive reasons to vote for the candidate.
  75. Federal Election Commission
    The government agency that enforces and regulates election laws; made up of six presidential appointees, of whom no more than three can be members of the same party.
  76. Hard money
    Donations that are used to help elect or defeat a specific candidate.
  77. Soft money
    Contributions that can be used for voter mobilization or to promote a policy proposal or point of view as long as these efforts are not tied to supporting or opposing a particular candidate.
  78. Paradox of voting
    The question of why citizens vote even though their individual votes stand little chance of changing the election outcome.
  79. Turnout
    The percentage of the voting age population who cast a ballot in a given election.
  80. Issue voters
    People who are well informed about their own policy preferences and knowledgeable about the candidates, and who use all of this information when they decide how to vote.
  81. Voting cues
    Pieces of information about a candidate that are readily available, easy to interpret, and lead a citizen to decide to vote for a particular candidate.
  82. Reasonable vote
    A vote that is likely to be consistent with the voter's true preference for one candidate over the others.
  83. Coattails
    The idea that a popular president can generate additional support for candidates affiliated with his party. Coattails are weak or nonexistent in most American elections.
  84. Split ticket
    A ballot on which a voter selects candidates from more than one political party.
  85. Popular vote
    The votes cast by citizens in an election.
  86. Electoral vote
    Votes cast by members of the electoral college; after a presidential candidate wins the popular vote in a given state, that candidate's slate of electors cast electoral votes for the candidate on behalf of that state.
  87. Interest group
    An organization of people who share common political interests and aim to influence public policy by electioneering and lobbying.
  88. Lobbying
    Efforts to influence public policy through contact with public officials on behalf of an interest group.
  89. Interest group state
    A government in which most policy decisions are determined by the influence of interest groups.
  90. Latent
    A group of politically like-minded people that is not represented by any interest group.
  91. Trade association
    An interest group composed of companies in the same business or industry (the same "trade") that lobbies for policies that benefit members of the group.
  92. Economic group
    A type of interest group that seeks public policies that provide monetary benefits to its members.
  93. Citizen group
    A type of interest group that seeks changes in spending, regulations, or government programs concerning a wide range of policies (also known as a public interest group).
  94. Single-issue group
    A type of interest group that has a narrowly focused goal, seeking change on a single topic, government program, or piece of legislation.
  95. Centralized groups
    Interest groups that have a headquarters, usually in Washington, DC, as well as members and field offices throughout the country. In general, these groups' lobbying decisions are made at headquarters by the group leaders.
  96. Confederations
    Interest groups made up of several independent, local organizations that provide much of their funding and hold most of the power.
  97. Revolving door
    The movement of individuals from government positions to jobs with interest groups or lobbying firms, and vice versa.
  98. Mass associations
    Interest groups that have a large number of dues-paying individuals as members.
  99. Peak associations
    Interest groups whose members are businesses or other organizations rather than individuals.
  100. Prisoners' dilemma
    A simple two-person game that illustrates how actions that are in a player's individual self-interest may lead to outcomes that all players consider inferior.
  101. Free riding
    The practice of relying on others to contribute to a collective effort while failing to participate on one's own behalf, yet still benefiting from the group's successes.
  102. Collective action problem
    A situation in which the members of a group would benefi t by working together to produce some outcome, but each individual is better off refusing to cooperate and reaping benefits from those who do the work.
  103. Solidary benefits
    Satisfaction derived from the experience of working with like-minded people, even if the group's efforts do not achieve the desired impact.
  104. Purposive benefits
    Satisfaction derived from the experience of working toward a desired policy goal, even if the goal is not achieved.
  105. Coercion
    A method of eliminating nonparticipation or free riding by potential group members by requiring participation, as in many labor unions.
  106. Selective incentives
    Benefits that can motivate participation in a group effort because they are available only to those who participate, such as member services offered by interest groups.
  107. Inside strategies
    The tactics employed within Washington, DC, by interest groups seeking to achieve their policy goals.
  108. Outside strategies
    The tactics employed outside Washington, DC, by interest groups seeking to achieve their policy goals.
  109. Direct lobbying
    Attempts by interest group staff to influence policy by speaking with elected officials or bureaucrats.
  110. Grassroots lobbying
    A lobbying strategy that relies on participation by group members, such as a protest or a letter-writing campaign.
  111. Astroturf lobbying
    Any lobbying method initiated by an interest group that is designed to look like the spontaneous, independent participation of many individuals.
  112. 501(c)(3) organization
    A tax code classifi cation that applies to most interest groups; this designation makes donations to the group tax-deductible but limits the group's political activities.
  113. Political action committee (PAC)
    An interest group or a division of an interest group that can raise money to contribute to campaigns or to spend on ads in support of candidates.The amount a PAC can receive from each of its donors and the amount it can spend on federal campaigning are strictly limited.
  114. 527 organization
    A tax-exempt group formed primarily to influence elections through voter mobilization efforts and issue ads that do not directly endorse or oppose a candidate. Unlike political action committees, 527s are not subject to contribution limits and spending caps.
  115. Taking the late train
    An interest group strategy that involves donating money to the winning candidate after an election in hopes of securing a meeting with that person when he or she takes office.
  116. Initiative
    A direct vote by citizens on a policy change proposed by fellow citizens or organized groups outside government. Getting a question on the ballot typically requires collecting a set number of signatures from registered voters in support of the proposal. There is no mechanism for a national-level initiative.
  117. Referendum
    A direct vote by citizens on a policy change proposed by a legislature or another government body. Referenda are common in state and local elections, but there is no mechanism for a national-level referendum.

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