Chapter 40

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Chapter 40
2011-04-09 18:39:10
Bio II

Midterm 2
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  1. chemoheterotrophs
    need to consume organic molecules for energy via carbon breakdown (cannot make organic molecules from inorganic carbon)
  2. interstitial fluid
    fluid that links exchange surfaces to body cells and is located in the spaces between cells
  3. tissue
    groups of cells of similar appearance and that have a common function
  4. organ
    functional units that are composed of individual types of tissues
  5. organ system
    groups of organs that work together provide an additional level of orgainzation/coordination
  6. epithelial tissue
    occurs as sheets of cells which covers the outside of the body and lines the internal organs and cavities; close packing of such tissue allows them to act as a barrier
  7. connective tissue
    bind and supports other tissues in the body; consists of a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix (can be liquid, jellylike or solid); 6 types: loose connective, cartilage, fibrous, adipose, blood and bone
  8. fibroblasts
    secrete the protein ingredients pf extracellular fibers; type of connective cell
  9. macrophages
    cells that roam the maze of fibers, engulfing both foreign particles & debris of dead cells by phagocytosis; type of connective cell
  10. muscle tissue
    tissue responsible for body movement; all cells that make up the tissue consist of filaments with the proteins actin & myosin which enable contraction; most abundant tissue in many animals; accounts for most energy consuming activity
  11. nervous tissue
    senses stimuli and transmits signals in the form of neuronal impulses
  12. hormones
    signaling molecules broadcast throughout the body by the endocrine system; only cells that have receptors for a particular hormone respond to the signal; slow but long lasting
  13. regulator
    type of animal that uses internal control mechanisms to regulate internal change in the face of external environmental fluctuations
  14. conformer
    an animal that allows its internal conditions to conform to external environmental changes (in a variable)
  15. homeostasis
    maintenance of an optimal/constant internal environment for life; requires ability to: detect changes in internal environment, communicate information to integration centers (sensors to integrating center, then integrating center to effectors), process information, change variables; several systems are involved: Nervous, Sense organs, Muscles (important effector organs), Endocrine glands (secrete hormones, important modes of communication) [N.M.S.E!]
  16. negative feedback
    important for homeostasis; a respnse that REDUCES the stimulus [ex: when you exercise you produce heat & body temp. rises; nervous system detects increase and triggers sweating, which helps cool and return body temp. to set point]
  17. positive feedback
    triggers mechanisms that amplify (not diminish) the stimulus) [ex. during childbirth, pressure from baby's head causes contractions, which increase the pressure until baby is born]
  18. acclimatization
    the process by which an animal adjusts to changes in external environment; a way in which the range of homeostasis may change
  19. thermoregulation
    process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range
  20. endothermic
    birds and mammals; warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism
  21. ectothermic
    amphibians, lizards, snakes, turtles, many fishes & invertebrates; gain heat from external sources; generally need to consume less food than endotherms of = size; can tolerate largeer fluctuations in internal temps; adjust temp. by BEHAVIORAL means
  22. heat is always transfered from an object of ______ temperature to one of _____ temperature
    higher; lower
  23. vasodilation
    relax the muscles of vessel walls; increased vessel diameter causes elevated blood flow in the skin; usually warms the skin and increases the transfer of body heat to the environment
  24. vasoconstriction
    reduces blood flow and heat transfer by decreasing diameter of superficial vessels (ex: when iguana swims in cold ocean, it's vessels contrict to reduce heat loss)
  25. countercurrent exchange
    how birds and mammals recude heat loss; it's the flow of adjacent fluids in opposing directions that maximizes the transfer rate of heat and solutes; arteries and veins are next to each other (antiparallel)
  26. metabolic rate
    amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time; can be measured by rate of heat loss
  27. size and metabolic rate
    lager animals have MORE body mass, therefore they require MORE chemical energy; the reationship between metabolic rate and body mass is CONSTANT
  28. however, the energy it takes to maintain each GRAM of body ______ is _________ related to body ____
    weight; INVERSELY; size
  29. smaller animals have:
    a higher metabolic rate per GRAM (so e/a gram of a mouse requires 20x more calories as a gram of an elephant, even though the elephant uses more calories overall), a greater rate of oxygen delivery, higher breathing rate, blood volume AND heart rate
  30. the smaller an animal is, the _______ its surface-to-volume ratio is and thus the ______ it loses/gains heat to/from environment
    GREATER; faster
  31. the maximum metabolic rate an animal can sustain is _________ related to the _________ of the activity
    inversely; duration
  32. torpor
    metabolic rate decreases and activity is low; adaptations that allows animals to save energy while avoiding dangerous/difficult conditions; many small animals/birds exhibit daily torpor that seems to be adapted to feeding patterns
  33. hibernation
    long-term torpor that is an addaptation to winter cold & food scarcity; results in HUGE energy savings

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