MCB Exam 4

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MCB Exam 4
2011-04-09 12:57:12
Immunology Overview Immune System

Immunology: Overview of Immune System
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  1. Aspects of innate immunity (4)
    ie general defense
    • Anatomical defenses
    • Inflammation
    • Fever
    • Phagocytic barriers
  2. 3 aspects of acquired (adaptive) immunity (3)
    • Specificity: specific against disease
    • Tolerance: of your own tissues
    • Memory: from exposure; varies in time
  3. First line of defense includes:
    • Skin and mucous membranes
    • Rapidly regenerating surfaces
    • Peristaltic movement
    • Mucociliary escalator
    • Vomiting
    • Flow of urine/tears
    • Coughing
  4. Second line of defense
    • Cellular and humoral defenses
    • Lysozyme
    • Sebaceous/mucous secretions
    • Stomach acid
    • Commensal organisms
    • Complement proteins
    • Phagocytosis
    • NK cells
  5. White blood cells which kill human cells that have gone wrong
    NK cells (natural killer cells)
  6. Third line of defense
    • Cellular & humoral defenses
    • Antibodies
    • Cytokines
    • T helper cells
    • Cytotoxic T cells (Tc cells)
    • B cells
  7. Same as NK cells, except are specific, whereas NK cells are nonspecific
    Tc cells (cytotoxic T cells)
  8. 3 key components of immune system
    • Blood
    • Lymph
    • Lymph System
  9. Blood Components
    • Erythrocytes (rb cells)
    • Platelets (clotting aids)
    • Immune system proteins (ie complement proteins)
    • Immune system cells (wb cells)
  10. Leukocytes (wb cells) types (4)
    • Lymphocytes: T & B cells
    • Monocytes
    • Neutrophils (PMNs)
    • Natural killer cells
  11. Wb cell for adaptive immunity
    Lymphocyte (T & B cells)
  12. Wb cell for phagocytosis & Ag presentation (2)
    • Macrophage
    • Monocyte
  13. Phagocytic and anti-bacterial wb cell (2)
    • Neutrophil
    • PMN
  14. Wb cell for anti-parasitic immunity
  15. Wb cell for protection of mucosal surfaces
    • Basophil
    • Mast cell
  16. Stem cells which can sahpe into any cell in body; all cells originate as these cells
    Pluripotent haemopoietic stem cell
  17. Precell which becomes lymphocyte
    Common lymphoid progenitor
  18. Precell which becomes all wb cells besides lymphocytes
    Myeloid progenitor
  19. Primary Lympoid Organs
    • Thymus
    • Bone Marrow
  20. Secondary Lymphoid Organs
    • Spleen
    • Tonsils
    • Apendix
    • Lymph nodes
    • MALT
  21. MALT and GALT
    • Mucous associated lymphatic tissue
    • Gut associated lymphatic tissue
    • *(Collects Ag from Respiratory and GI tracts)
  22. Molecule that the immune system recognizes as non-self and can react to
  23. Antigen must be:
    • >10,000 MW
    • (So must be large enough)
  24. Components of microbes which can be an antigen (3)
    • Proteins (#1)
    • Cell membrane
    • Envelope componenets
  25. Nonspecific Lines of defense
    • Innate resistance
    • First line of defense
    • Second line of defense
  26. Specific lines of defense
    Third line of defense: immune response
  27. Structures, chemicals, processes that work to prevent pathogens from entering the body
    first line of defense
  28. Ways skin is first line of defense (4)
    • Perspiration (high salt)
    • Oil (low pH)
    • Lysozyme: destroys bacterial cell wall
    • Epidermis sheds
    • Cool
    • Dry
  29. Components of second line of defense (5)
    • #1: phagocytocis
    • #2: inflammation
    • #3: fever
    • extracellular killing by leukocytes (NK cells)
    • nonspecific chemical defenses
  30. Cells capable of phagocytosis (certain leukocytes or their derivatives)
  31. 3 types of phagocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Macrophages
    • Neutrophils
  32. Phagocytic wb cells which circulate in blood
  33. Phagocytic wb cells which mostly reside in tissues, remove bacteria & parasites, clean up dead cells, present antigen to T cells (APC)(like putting up flag), produce cytokines
  34. Phagocytic wb cells which engulf and destroy bacteria
  35. Lysosome contains:
    Lysozyme, protesase, lipase, nuclease, and oxidizing agent (like superoxide or peroxide)
  36. Phagocytic failure happens when bacteria inhibit phagocytic killing by: (3)
    • Capsule
    • Carotenoid- antioxidant which resists action of lysozyme
    • Leukocidine
  37. Serum proteins that destroy extracellular bacteria and viruses, but must be activated to be effective
    Complement proteins
  38. How do complement proteins do their job?
    • Lyse foreign cells
    • Attracts phagocytes to the area (chemotaxis)
    • Aid phagocytes in doing their job (opsonization)
  39. Method of making bacteria or virus more appealing to phagocytic cells by putting proteins (antibodies) on pathogen's membrane which attract phagocytic cells & make it easier for phagocytic cells to attach to (like sugar-coating)
  40. Protein molecules released by host cells to nonspecifically inhibit the spread of viral infections
  41. 1st line of defense against viral infections
  42. Nonspecific immune response which is characterized by redness, heat, swelling, pain
  43. Fever-inducing compound which triggers the hypothalamus to increase the body's core temp
  44. Types of pyrogens (4)
    • Bacterial toxins
    • Cytoplasmic contents of bacteria released by lysis
    • Antibody-antigen complexes (inflammation)
    • Interleukin-I (IL-1) (cytokins)
  45. Molecules that trigger a specific immune response by tagging the bacteria as foreign by binding to components of bacteria (like pili, cell mem, etc)
  46. Portion of the antigen bound by the antibody
  47. Immune system proteins made by activated B cells that bind to specific antigens (identify & mark bacteria but don't actually kill it!)
    Antibodies (immunoglobulins)
  48. Antibodies aka:
  49. Activated form of B cells
    Plasma cells
  50. Importance of antibody binding: (4)
    • Neutralizes toxins: by binding & blocking toxin, such as venom
    • Neutralizes viruses:
    • Marks invaders for attack
    • Aids phagocytosis (opsonization)
  51. Region of antibody which is binding site
    Variable region- FAB fragment
  52. Region of antibody which stays same, sticks out so body regonizes that there is foreign material
    Constant region- FC fragment
  53. 4 classes of antibodies
    • IgG
    • IgM
    • IgA
    • IgE
  54. Major circulating antibody; initially given from mother to child via placenta
  55. First antibody to appear after infection
  56. Major antibody in secretions (GI tract, tears, vaginal, etc)
  57. Antibody involved in allergic rxns
  58. Ig =