Biology 2 Lara

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Biology 2 Lara
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Test 3 chapter 33 34
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  1. Chapter 33

    1.Describe a sponge (what phylum?) and how it feeds and digests its food
    • Phylum: CALCAREA, SILICEA (paraphyletic)
    • lack true tissues, have choanocytes (collar cells-flagellated cells that ingest bactera and tiny food particles)

    Water passes through pores and food particles are trapped in mucosa of collar cell projections of choanocytes; phagocytosis of particles and/or passed on to amoebocytes
  2. List the characteristics of the phylum Cnidaria that distinguish it from other animal phyla
  3. Unique stinging structures (nematocysts) housed in specialized cells (cnidocytes);
    • Diploblastic;
    • Radially symmetrical;
    • Gastrovascular cavity (digestive comparment with a single opening ass and mouth)
  4. 3.List the four classes of Cnidaria and distinguish among them based on lifecycle morphology
    1 Hydrozoa- (port man-of-wars, hydras) Most marine, a few freshwater; BOTH POLYP and MEDUSA STAGES in MOST species; polyp stage often COLONIAL

    2. Scyphozoa- (jellies)- All marine; POLYP STAGE absent OR reduced; free-swimming; medusae up to 2 m diameter

    3. Cubozoa- (box jellies, see wasps) All marine; BOX SHAPED MEDUSAE; complex eyes; potent venom

    4. Anthozoa- (sea anemones, most corals) - All marin; MEDUSA STAGE COMPLETELY ABSENT- ONLY POLYPS!
  5. 4.List the characteristics of the phlyum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) and the four classes
    (Flatwoms)- Dorsoventrally flattened, unsegmented, acoelomates (no body cavity); have a gastrovascular cavity or no digestive tract

    Classes of Platyhelminths (flatworms) phylum:

    • Turbellaria (free-living flatworms),
    • Monogenea (monogeneans),
    • Trematoda (trematodes, or flukes),
    • Cestoda (tapeworms)
  6. CLASS Turbellaria (free-living flatworms "planarian") CLADE, PHYLUM and characteristics
    • CLADE: Lopotrochozoa
    • PHYLUM: Platyhelminths
    • CLASS: Turbellaria
    • Mostly marine, some freshwater, few terrestrial
    • Predators and Scavengers
    • Ciliated body surface
  7. CLASS Monogenea (monogeneans) CLADE, PHYLUM, and characterisitics
    • CLADE: Lopotrochozoans
    • PHYLUM: Platyhelminths
    • CLASS: Monogenea
    • Marine and freshwater parasites
    • Most infect external srufaces of fishes
    • Life history simple
    • Ciliated larva starts infection on host
  8. CLASS Trematoda (trematodes, or flukes) CLADE, PHYLUM and characteristics
    • CLADE: Lophotrochozoans
    • PHYLUM: Platyhelminths
    • CLASS: Trematoda (flukes)
    • parasites of mostly vertebrates;
    • two suckers attach to host;
    • most life cycles include intermediate and final hosts
  9. CLASS Cestoda (tapeworms) CLADE, PHYLUM and characterisitcs
    • CLADE: Lopotrochozoa
    • PHYLUM: Platyhelminths
    • CLASS: Cestoda (tapeworms)
    • Parasites of vertebrates
    • Scolex attaches to host
    • Proglottids produce eggs and break off after fertilization
    • NO head or digestive system
    • Lifecycle with one or more intermediate hosts
  10. PHYLUM: Rotifera (Rotifers); CLADE and characteristics
    • Lophotrochozoa clade
    • Pseudocoelomates with alimentary canal (digestive tube with mouth and anus)
    • Jaws (trophi) in pharynx
    • Head with ciliated crown
  11. 5.Describe a lophophore and name two lophophorate
    phyla
    Lophophore is a crown of ciliated tentacles that surround the mouth and function in feeding

    Phyla Ectoprocta and Brachiopoda (Coelomates)
  12. 6.Describe the features of molluscs (phylum Mollusca); name the CLADE and name the four CLASSES
    Coelomates with three main body parts (muscular foot, mantle, and visceral mass)

    • CLADE: Lophotrochozoa
    • CLASSES:
    • Polyplacophora (chitons)
    • Gastropoda (snails, slugs)
    • Bivalvia (clams, mussels, scallops, oysters)
    • Cephalopoda (squids, octopuses, cuttlefishes, chambered nautiluses)
  13. What Clade and Phylum does the Class Polyplacophora (Chitons) belong?
    What are it's main characteristics?
    • CLADE: Lophotrochozoa
    • PHYLUM: Mollusca
    • CLASS: Polyplacophora (chitons)
    • Marine
    • Shell with eight plates
    • foot used for locomotion
    • radula
    • no head
  14. What CLADE and PHYLUM do the Gastropoda (Snails and Slugs) belong?
    What are the main characteristics?
    • Marine
    • Freshwater or terrestrial
    • Head present
    • a symmetrical body, usually with a coiled shell
    • shell reduced or absent
    • foot for locomotion
    • radula
  15. What CLADE and PHYLUM do the CLASS of Bivalvia (clams and mussels) belong?
    WHat are the characteristics?
    • CLADE: Lophotrochozoan
    • PHYLUM: Mollusca
    • CLASS: Bivalvia (clams, mussels, scallops, oysters)
    • Marine and freshwater
    • Flattened shell with two halves
    • Head reduced
    • Paired gills
    • No radula
    • Most are suspension feeders
    • Mantle forms siphons
  16. What CLADE and PHYLUM are the CLASS Cephalopda (squids, octopuses) from?
    WHat are their characteristics?
    • CLADE: Lophotrochozoa
    • PHYLUM: Mollusca
    • CLASS: Cephalopoda
    • Marine
    • Head surrounded by grasping tentacles, usually with suckers
    • Shell external, internal, OR absent
    • Mouth with OR without radula
    • Locomotion by jet propolsion using siphon formed from foot
  17. 7. What CLADE is the Phylum Annelida (segmented worms) from? Describe the features of annelids and Name the three classes
    • CLADE: Lophotrochozoan
    • CLASSES:
    • Oligochaeta (freshwater, marine, and terrestrial segmented worms) reduced head; no parapodia, but chetae present
    • Polychaeta (mostly marine segmented worms)
    • -Many have a well-developed head
    • -Each segment usually has parapodia with many chetae
    • -Free-living
    • Hirudinea (leeches)
    • -Body usually flattened, with reduced coelom and segmentation
    • -Chaetae usually absent
    • -Suckers at anterior and Posterior ends
    • -Parasites, predators, and scavengars
  18. Bilaterian Ecdysozoa include____ and _____
    • Nematoda (roundworms)
    • Arthropoda (crustaceans, insects, spiders)
  19. What Clade is Nematoda (Roundworms)?
    Bilateria Protostome falling into the Ecdysozoa clade
  20. 8.List the characteristics of Nematodes (nematoda phyum-roundworms) that distinguish them from other wormlike animals
    • Cylyndrical, UNSEGMENTED, pseudocoelomates with tapered ends
    • NO circulatory system
    • Undergo ecdysis
  21. 9.List three features that account for the success of arthropods (arthropoda phylum)
    • Arthropoda (crustaceans, insects, spiders) are Coelomates. Success due to;
    • Segmented body
    • Jointed appendages
    • Exoskeleton made of protein and chitin
  22. 10.Define and distinguish among the four major arthropod lineages (subphyla)
    • Cheliceriforms- Body having or or two main parts; six pairs of appendages (chelicerae, pedipalps, and four pairs of walking legs); Mostly terrestrial or marine
    • Myriapoda (millipedes and centipedes) Distinct head bearing antennae and chewing mouthparts; terrestrial; millipedes are herbivorous and have two pairs of walking legs per trunk segment; centipedes are carnivorous and have one pair of walking legs per trunk segment and poison claws on first body segment
    • Hexapoda (insects, springtails) Body divided into head, thorax and abdomen; antennae present; mouthparts modified for chewing, sucking, or lapping; three pairs of legs and usually tow pairs of wings; mostly terrestrial
    • Crustacea (crabs, lobsters, crayfishes, shrimps) Body of two or three parts; antennae present; chewing mouth parts; three or more pairs of legs; mostly marine and freshwater
  23. Subphylum Cheliceriforms- (horse shoe crabs, spiders, scorpions)
    Characterisitcs;
    Body having or or two main parts; six pairs of appendages (chelicerae, pedipalps, and four pairs of walking legs); Mostly terrestrial or marine
  24. Subphylum Myriapoda includes what two classes?
    What are the characteristics?
    Diplopoda (millipedes) and Chilopoda (centipedes)

    • Distinct head bearing antennae and chewing mouthparts;
    • Terrestrial; millipedes are herbivorous and have two pairs of walking legs per trunk segment;
    • Centipedes are carnivorous and have one pair of walking legs per trunk segment and poison claws on first body segment
  25. (Phylum Arthropoda)
    What are the characterisitcs of the Subphylum Hexapoda (insects, springtails)?
    • Body divided into head, thorax and abdomen;
    • Antennae present;
    • Mouthparts modified for chewing, sucking, or lapping; Three pairs of legs and usually two pairs of wings;
    • Mostly terrestrial
  26. Phylum Arthropoda
    Subphylum Crustacea (crabs, lobsters, crayfishes, shrimps) characteristics?
    • Body of two or three parts;
    • Antennae present;
    • Chewing mouth parts;
    • Three or more pairs of legs;
    • Mostly marine and freshwater
  27. 11.Describe the developmental similarities between echinoderms and chordates
    • Both deutoerostomes so they develop by way of radial cleavage (in line) and formation of the mouth at the end of the embryo opposite the blastopore.
    • Both are coelomates
    • (Deuterostomia is defined primarily by DNA similarities---not developmental similarities)
  28. 12.Characterisitcs of Echinoderms and Distinguish among the six Classes of echinoderms
    • Phylum Echinodermata (sea stars, sea urchins)
    • - Coelomates with bilaterally symmetrical larvae and five-part body organization as adults
    • - Unique water vascular system
    • - Endoskeleton

    • Classes:
    • 1. Asteroidea (sea stars) -
    • -Star shaped body with multiple arms;
    • -Mouth directed to substrate

    • 2. Ophiuroidea (brittle stars)
    • - Distinct central disk
    • - Long , flexible arms
    • - Incomplete digestive system

    • 3. Echinoidea (sea urchins, sand dollars)
    • - Roughly spherical or disk-shaped
    • - No Arms
    • - Mouth ringed by omplex, jaw-like structure
    • - Five rows of tube feet, enabling slow movement

    • 4. Crinoidea (sea lilies, feather stars)
    • - Feathered arms surrounding upward pointing mouth
    • - Suspension feeders

    • 5. Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers)
    • - Cucumber-shaped body
    • - Five rows of tube feeat around the mouth are modified as feeding tentacles
    • - Reduced Skeletons
    • - NO SPINES

    • 6. Concentricyloidea (sea daisies)
    • - Armless, disk-shaped body ringed with small SPINES
    • - Incomplete digestive system
    • - Live on submerged wood
  29. Chapter 34
    List the derived traits for chordates,
    Phylum Chordata (Lancelets tunicates, vertebrates)

    Derived traits

    • Coelomates with
    • -notochord
    • -Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
    • -Phryngeal slits
    • -Post-anal tail
  30. A longitudinal, flexible rod made of tightly packed mesodermal cells that runs along the anterior-posterior axis of a chordate in the dorsal part of the body.
    notochord
  31. In chordate embryos, one of the grooves that separate a series of pouches along the sides of the pharynx and may develop into a pharyngeal slit.
    pharyngeal cleft
  32. In chordate embryos, one of the slits that form from the pharyngeal clefts and communicate to the outside, later developing into gill slits in many vertebrates.
    pharyngeal slit
  33. The _________ of a chordate embryo develops into the central nervous system: brain and spinal cord
    Dorsal, Hollow Nerve cord
  34. Member of the subphylum Urochordata, sessile marine chordates that lack a backbone.
    Tunicates
  35. craniates traits
    • chordates with a head
    • two Hox gene clusters, neural crest

    • Craniates:
    • Myxini (hagfish and relatives)
    • Petromyzontida (lampreys)
    • Chondrichthyes (sharks, rays, skates, ratfishes)
    • Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
    • Actinistia (coelacanths --fish)
    • Dipnoi (lungfishes)
    • Amphibia (salamanders, frogs, caecilians)
    • Reptilia (tuataras, lizards and snakes, turtles, crocs and birds)
    • Mammalia (monotremes, marsupials, eutherians ( placental mammals such as rodents primates))
  36. vertebrates traits
    • Vertebrates are craniates with a backbone
    • Dlx genes duplication, backbone of vertebrae

    • Vertebrates:
    • -Petromyzontida (lampreys)
    • -Chondirchthyes (sharks, rays, skates, ratfishes)
    • -A
    • -A
    • -D
    • -A
    • -R
    • -M
  37. Gnathostomes traits
    Gnathostomes are vertebrates that have hinged jaws and four Hox gene clusters

    • From Chondrichthyes (sharks, rays skates, ratfishes) on down
    • NOT Lampreys or Hagfishes. They are jawless.
  38. Tetrapods traits
    • Tetrapods are gnathostomes that have;
    • Four limbs, neck, and fused pelvic girdle

    • Amphibia (salamanders, forgs, caecilians)
    • Reptilia (tuataras, lizards and snakes, turtles, crocs, AND birds)
    • Mammalia (monotremes, marsupials, eutherians)
  39. Amniotes traits
    Amniotes are tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg and rib-cage ventilation

    • Includes;
    • Reptilia (tuataras, lizards and snakes, turtles, crocs, and birds)
    • Mammalia (monotremes, marsupials, and eutherians (placental mammals such as rodents, primates)
  40. Bird traits
    Adapted for flight, larger brains proportionally compared to other amphibians that don't have the acuity of senses for flight. High metabolism. NO bladder, gonads small except during mating season, females have one ovary, toothless.
  41. Member of an amniote clade distinguished by a single hole on each side of the skull. They include the mammals.
    Synapsids
  42. Mammalia traits
    • Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk
    • Evolved from synapsid ancestors
    • Include egg-laying monotremes (echidnas, platypus)
    • Pouched marsupials (such as kangaroos, opossums)
  43. primates traits
  44. human traits
  45. Explain what Haikouella and Myllokunmingia tell us about craniate evolution
    Haikouella resembled a lancelet and was likely a suspension feeder. Had characters of craniates in that it had a large and well formed brain, small eyes, and muscle segments along the body as do the vertebrate fishes. Haikouella did NOT have a skull or ear organs, suggesting that these characters emerged with further innovations to the chordate nervous system.
  46. Describe the trends in mineralized structures in early vertebrates
    • Began as mineralized cartilage
    • transition of feeding mechanisms likely influenced mineralization. End of darvonian period jawless armored bodied verts disappeared
    • Jaws and teeth or mineralized mouth parts began to show in in early vertebrates (conodont dental elements) which was probably due to their larger size and ability to now become scavengers and predators.
    • Mineralized fin rays may have helped swimming abilities.
  47. What is the clade/phylum and class of the Jawless vertebrates; typically feed by attaching to a live fish and ingesting its blood
    Dlx genes duplication, backbone of vertebrae
    Petromyzontida (lampreys)
  48. Describe and distinguish between Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, noting the main traits of each group
    • Chondrichthyes (sharks, rays, skates, ratfishes) traits include;
    • Hinged Jaws,
    • Four Hox gene clusters
    • Aquatic gnathostomes; have cartilaginous skeleton secondarily evolved from an ancestral mineralized skeleton

    • OSTEICHTHYES (actinopterygii) Ray finned fish
    • have bony skeletons
  49. A common opening for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts found in many nonmammalian vertebrates like sharks but in few mammals
    cloaca
  50. in aquatic osteichthyans, a protective bony flap that covers and protects the gills.
    operculum
  51. key derived character of ______ is the presence of rod shaped bones surrounded by a thick layer of muscle in their pectoral and pelvic fins.
    Sarcopterygii --Lobe-fins (lineage of ostei)
  52. A mechanoreceptor system consisting of a series of pores and receptor units along the sides of the body in fishes and aquatic amphibians; detects water movements made by the animal itself and by other moving objects.
    lateral line system
  53. Define and distinguish among gnathostomes, tetrapods, and amniotes
    Gnathostomes (Chondrichthyes "sharks" to mammals) have hinged jaws, four hox gene clusters

    Tetrapods (amphibia, reptilia, mammalia) are gnathostomes that have four limbs (from modified fins), neck, fused pelvic girdle (boney skeleton)

    Amniotes (repitlia and mammalia) have amniotic eggs, and rib-cage ventiliation
  54. Describe an amniotic egg and explain its significance in the evolution of reptiles and mammals
  55. Explain why the reptile clade includes birds
  56. Explain the significance of Archaeopteryx
    lizard in drag
  57. Distinguish among monotreme, marsupial, and eutherian mammals
  58. Define the term hominin
  59. Describe the evolution of Homo sapiens from australopith ancestors, and clarify the order in which distinctive human traits arose
  60. Explain the significance of the FOXP2 gene

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