quiz #3- balance and agility
Card Set Information
quiz #3- balance and agility
balance and agility
What are intrinsic factors that contribute to balance?
spinal cord reflexes and CNS reactions
individual senses (vision, vestibular, somatosensory)
What are extrinsic factors that contribute to balance?
What is the ideal footwear and surface to test in?
important to document both
avoid slippers, socks, open clogs, >1" heel, poor fitting shoes
low pile surface is better than vinyl/wooden
use plush carpet for safety
What is balance training?
the concept of movement strategies to accomplish dynamic balance with impairments as underlying factor
movement strategies- ankle, hip and stepping
What are examples of the three movement strategies?
ankle- on a bus, swaying or on foam
hip- loss of balance in forward direction, causes hip extensors and back muscles to be activated
stepping- person is forced to step because balance is out of the area of stability
What is a way to measure static balance?
one legged stance time
can do eyes open or close
: <5 sec = high risk, 5-20= moderate risk, >20= low risk
: >30 sec = low risk
What is a way to measure dynamic balance?
functional reach test
closed fist, height of shoulder, 3rd metacarpal
<6"= high risk, 6-10"= moderate risk, >10"= low risk
What is considered the 6th vital sign?
speed of 1.2 m/sec necessary to cross street
+ correlated with quad strength, stair climbing ability, decreased fall risk and survival
What is a way to measure gait velocity?
6 m walk test
8 m walk test
What is agility?
ability to accelerate, decelerate, stabilize and change directions quickly while maintaining balance and proper posture
What are agility tests for young and old?
: figure 8 test, shuttle run
: TUG, other tests
What are characteristics of the figure 8 test?
10 meters in length, 4 meters in width
tests are sensitive to weakness, pain, and swelling in knee
: need significant space
What are characteristics of the TUG test?
done on elderly
can use AD
10' (senior fitness test is 8')
chair with back and armrests
<13.5 seconds = low fall risk
>30 secs= need assistance with ADL
What is the dynamic gait index used for?
includes accelerations/decelerations, pivot turns, abrupt stops, head turns
poor performance correlated with vestibular dysfunction
What is the tinnetti test used for?
two parts- gait and balance
<19/28 = high risk for falling
How is the Berg scored and what is significant?
evaluates balance impairment in elderly and predicts fall risk
<45 = need for AD
higher the score = lower risk for falling
What does stair climbing measure?
highly correlated to functional abilites in older adults
What are single limb hop tests for and what are the 4 tests?
functional tests for athletes
single hop for distance
triple crossover hop for distance
stright triple hop for distance
What is the 4 square step test for?
dynamic balance for aging, non frail adults
>15 secs= should be referred to PT for exam adn exercise prescription
What is agility training?
combination of physical speed, fluidity, and skill
the ability to explosively brake, change direction and accelerate again
What is the progression of agility training?
begin with static, bilateral and stable surfaces and progress to dynamic, unilateral, and unstable surfaces
What is the progression of balance training?
progress from static to dynamic balance
What interventions are used to improve balance and decrease fall risk?
multifactorial- no one exercise technique or type of exercise has been shown effective in balance (except tai chi)
recommend balance, flexibility, & strengthening exercises